dictionary of violin makers
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DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS and BOW MAKERS

from Old Violins by H. R. Haweis

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AACHNER, Philipp. A Mittenwalder, 1772; ordinary German characteristics.

ABBATI, Giuseppe. He worked at Modena, according to Forster, 1775-93.

ABSAM, Thomas. Lived at Wakefield, in Yorkshire; but his name, identical with the birthplace of Stainer, suggests a German origin. Employed by Pickard, of Leeds; his labels run: “Made by Thomas Absam, Wakefield.” Date, 1810-49.

ACEVO. Doubtful whether he ever existed. Fétis saw a bass viol which he connected with his name. It was signed at the back, “Marin Marais,” but it is all very shadowy.

ADAM, Jean Dominique, son of Jean Adam. Both worked at Mirecourt, according to Vidal; both made bows, and the son made the best, and signed all he sold himself, 1823-69.

ADAMS, C. Takes rank merely as a local maker at Garmouth, Scotland, 1800.

AGLIO, Giuseppe dall', of Mantua; varnish bright yellow, 1800-40.

AIRETON (Airton), Edmund, of London. Made good fiddles on the Amati and Steiner models; he varnished yellow, 1727-1807.

ALBANESI, Sebastiano, is said to have lived at Cremona; his work is almost unknown, 1720-44.

ALBANI, Mathias, b. about 1621, Botzen (Tyrol); d. there 1673.

ALBERTI, Ferdinando. Milanese; yellow varnish. Label: “Ferdinando Alberti, fece in Milano, nella contrada delle pesce al segno della Corona, nel anno 1740-60.”

ALDRIC. Maker and great repairer. Labels: “Fait par Aldric,” or “Rue de Seine, 71, près celle de Bussy, Aldric, luthier, Paris, an 18—.”

ALESSANDRO. A Venetian maker, 1540.

ALETZIE, Paul. Worked at Munich; good tenors and violoncellos, German type, 1710-20.

ALLARD, François. Successor of Maubert, 9 rue du Petit-Pont, 1788-89.

ALVANI. A Cremonese maker, 1750.

AMATI, Andrea. The father of the Cremona school, 1525.

AMATI, Antonio, elder son of Andrea Amati; b. Cremona about 1560.

AMATI, Girolamo, second son of Andrea Amati; b. about 1562.

AMATI, Girolamo, third son and successor of Nicola Amati; b. Feb. 26, 1649.

AMATI, Giuseppe. Said to have lived in Bologna, seventeenth century.

AMATI, Nicola, younger brother of Andrea Amati, is said to have worked with him, 1568-80.

AMATI, Nicola, son of Girolamo Amati; b. Dec. 3, 1596; d. April 12, 1684, aged eighty-eight, according to the registers of Cremona Cathedral.

AMBROGI, Pietro. Cremona and Rome. “Petrus Ambrogi, Crem. fecit Romæ, an. 17-.”

AMBROSI, Pietro. A Brescian maker; very mediocre, 1712.

AMBROSIO, Antonio d'. Neapolitan, 1820.

AMELOT. French maker in Lorient; yellow varnish mediocre, 1812-29.

ANCIAUME. Existence doubtful.

ANSELMO, Pietro. Cremona and Venice; small pattern deep yellow varnish; fair maker, 1700.

ANTONIAZZI, Gregorio. Bergamo, 1738; labels bear: “in Colle, 1738.”

ANTONIO, Cypriano.

ANTONY, Girolamo. Cremonese pattern; yellow varnish, 1751.

ARDENOIS, Johannes. Ghent, 1731.

ARTMANN. Weimar, cir. 1760; pupil of Ernst of Gotha Amati pattern; yellow varnish.

ASKEY, Samuel. Pupil of John Morrison; employed by Crosby cir. 1825.

ASSALONE, Gaspare. Roman; Amati pattern; over-arched; poor yellow varnish.

AUBRY. Paris; a nephew of Aldric (who dealt with Tarisio); inferior to his uncle, 1840.

AUDINoT, Nestor Dominique, b. at Mirecourt 1842; worked under Sébastien Vuillaume; took up his business in 1875 at the age of seventeen; is very industrious, and makes excellent instruments. Labels: “N.Audinot, luthier, élève de Vuillaume, Paris.”

AUGIÈRE. Pupil of Clément, Paris; good maker; red and brown varnish, 1830.

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BAADER, J. A., & Co. Mittenwald; wholesale producers on cheapest terms; their Stainer copies are good, 1854.

BACHELIER. Inferior French maker, 1777-89.

BACHMANN, Carl Ludwig An excellent maker of Berlin, 1716-1800; violins, violas, and 'cellos often mistaken for Cremonas; a viola player; maker to the Prussian Court; founder the Berlin Amateur Concerts; inventor of screw pegs for double-basses.

BACHMANN, O. Good maker, of Halberstadt; first-rate repairer; wrote on violin construction, 1835.

BAGATELLA (Bagattella), Antonio. Padua; good restorer; much employed by German princes; made few good instruments, but wrote learnedly en violin construction, 1750-82.

BAGATELLA ( Bagattella), Pietro. Padua, 1760-66.

BAILLY, Paul. Mirecourt; fair maker; Chicago Exhibitor, 1893.

BAINES. London; pupil of Furber, 1780.

BAIRHOF, Giorgio. Naples; Gagliano school.

BAJONI, Luigi. Milanese, 1840-76.

BAKER, Francis. London, 1696.

BAKER, John. Oxford, 1688-1720; excellent tone; yellow varnish; transition maker.

BALESTRIERl (Balestieri), Pietro, brother of Tommaso.

BALESTRIERI (Balestieri), Tommaso, brother of Pietro.

BALLANTINE. Scotch, 1850-56.

BANKS, Benjamin, son of George and Barbary Banks, 1727-95.

BANKS, Benjamin, second son of Benjamin Banks (1727-95), b. Sept. 13, 1754; d. Jan. 22, 1820.

BANKS, James and Henry, fourth and sixth sons of B. Banks (1727-95).

BARBANTI, Silva Francesco. A maker at Correggio, 1850.

BARBIERI, Francesco. Veronese; early Guarnerian pattern, 1695.

BARNES, Robert. Pupil of Thomas Smith; set up with John Norris, 1765; employed Aireton, but used their own trade label.

BARNIA, Fedele. Milanese, 1716-51.

BAROUX. Paris; very good bow-maker, 1830.

BARRETT, John. London; a contemporary of Barak Norman and Nathaniel Cross; long and arched pattern; yellow varnish; sweet tone; labelled: “John Barrett, at the Harp and Crown in Pickadilly, London, 1731.”

BARToN, George. London; d. cir. 1810.

BASSOT, Joseph. Paris; fine maker; brown and reddish varnish; earlier yellow and inferior; label: “Joseph Bassot, luthier, Paris, 1802.”

BAUD. Versailles; experimented omitting sound-bar, but not a success.

BAUSCH, Ludwig Christian. Good bow-maker; Naumburg and Leipsic, 1805-71.

BAUSCH.. Excellent bow-maker; silver medallist, Dresden; friend of Spohr, 1840.

BECKMANN (Bekman), Sweno. Stockholm; rough maker, 1700-6.

BEDLER, Norbert. Würzburg, 1723.

BELA, Szepessy. Good contemporary maker; worked at Budapest and Munich, and is now in London; copies Strad and N. Amati.

BELLONE, Pietro Antonio, known as Il Pescorino. Milanese, 1694.

BELLOSIO, Anselmo. Venetian; pupil of Serafino and master of M. A. Cerin, 1720-80.

BELVIGLIERI, Gregorio. Fairly good Bolognese maker, 1742.

BENEDICT,.Jose. Cadiz, 1738.

BENEDICTI, Donate de. Cremona, 1674.

BENTI, Matteo, b. 1579. Brescia; contemporary of Maggini.

BERETTA, Felice. Como; Guadagnini school; bow-maker, 1760-85.

BERGÉ. Toulouse, 1771.

BERGONZI, Benedetto, d. 1840.

BERGONZI, Carlo. Cremona; the first of the great Bergonzi family of makers; b.(?); d. 1747.

BERGoNZI, Carlo, third son of Michel Angelo.

BERGONZI (Baganzi), Francesco. Named as early as 1687.

BERGONZI, Michel Angelo, son of Carlo; b. 1722; d. after 1765.

BERGONZI, Nicola, eldest son of Michel Angelo.

BERGONZI, Zosimo, brother of Nicola.

BERNARDEL, Anguste Sébastien Philippe. An excellent maker who worked under Lupôt and Gand. Firm: “Bernardel et fils,” then “Gand et Bernardel;” Paris (1849) gold medal, London (1855) gold medal

BERNARDEL, Frères. Ernst Auguste and Gustave Adolphe, sons of Sébastien Philippe.

BERTASIO, Luigi. Piadena, 17—.

BERTASSI, Ambrogio. Piadena, 1730.

BERTET, Joseph R. French maker; little known, 1754.

BERTRAND, Nicolas. Paris; a few early fiddles, 1686-1735.

BETTS, John Edward, known as “Old John Betts;” b. 1755, at Stamford, Lincolnshire; d. March 1823; was buried at Cripplegate Church; pupil of Richard Duke, senior

BETTS (Ned), Edward, nephew of John Betts; like him a pupil of Richard Duke. He died between 1815 and 1820.

BIANCHI, Nicola. Pupil of Guadagnini, 1800 to 1875; Genoa, Cremona, and Paris; fair maker.

BINDERNAGEL. Gotha, 1745-1804; inferior maker.

BITTNER, David. Viennese, 1862-80; made chiefly for America.

BLAIR, John. Edinburgh, 1820.

BLAISE. Mirecourt, 1820; indifferent.

BLANCHARD, Paul François, 1865-94; worked with J. B. Vuillaume; very good violins; his workmen turn out good cheap ones; follows Strad; Mirecourt and Lyons.

BODIO, Giambattista. Venice, 1792-1832.

BOIVIN, Claude. Paris, 1735-53; fair maker.

BOMBERGHI, Lorenzo. Florentine, seventeenth century.

BOMÉ, Thomas. Inferior; French.

BOOTH, William. English; 1779-1858; good repairer.

BOOTH, William, son of W. Booth, senior; b. 1816, Leeds; d. 1856; a clever workman.

BOQUAY (Bocquay), Jacques, b. at Lyons. 1700-30.

BORBON (Bourbon), Gaspar. End of sixteenth century; Brussels; Gaspar model.

BORELLI, Andreas, 1730-47; Parma; Guadagnini model.

BORLON, François. Antwerp maker, 1680-1710.

BOUCHER., London, 1764.

BOULLANGIER, Charles, b. 1823, Mirecourt; d. October 1888. Learnt his trade in Mirecourt till 1843; worked with Vuillaume and Gand and Bernardel, also for Edward Withers, London; good copyist of Strad.

BOUMEESTER (Baumeester). Amsterdam maker, 1637-68.

BOURDET, Jacques. Fair French maker, 1751.

BOURGARD, Jean. Worked in Nancy about 1780-87.

BOUSSU. Bruxelles about 1750-80; fairly good Amati pattern.

BRAGLIA, Antonio. Modena, eighteenth century.

BRANDIGLIONI. Brescia; copied Maggini.

BRANDL, Karl. Budapest; exhibited in London Exhibition, 1862.

BRANZO, Barbaro Francesco. Padua, 1660.

BREMEISTER, Jan. Amsterdam, 1707.

BRETON, J. F. Paris, 1740-80.

BRETON, Le, b. 1780, at Mirecourt.. No great value; 1812 to 1830.

BROSCHI, Carlo. Parma, 1730-44.

BROWN, James, b. 1755, d. Sept. 1830. Silk weaver in Shoreditch, London; pupil of Thomas Kennedy; chiefly a repairer of instruments.

BROWN, James, jun., son of the above; both father and sun fair workmen; b. Nov. 17 86; d. 1860, at White Lion Street, Norton Folgate; apprenticed to his father, but was principally employed to make bows.

BROWN, son and pupil of James Brown, jun. When about twenty years old, ceased to make instruments.

BROWNE, John. Cornhill, London, 1743; copied Nicholas Amati.

BRUBACH, Antoine, b. Jan. 22, 1847, Mirecourt; head of “Klein at Cie.,” Rouen..

BRUGÈRE, Charles Georges, b. Nov. 10, 1865, at Mirecourt; excellent maker; only labels what he makes himself.

BRUGÈRE, Charles Malakoff, d. 1894. Son of above; made about 100 good fiddles; the family still work at Mirecourt.

BRUGÈRE, François, brother of Charles Joseph Brugère. Had three sons, all makers.

BUCHSTADTER (Buchstetter), Gabriel David. Ratisbon, 1752; Cremona flat pattern; good orchestral instruments.

BUDIANI, Giavetta. Some of his large bass viols adapted for double-basses with four strings; contemporary of G. P. Maggini.

BUONFIGLIUOLI, Pier Francesco. Florentine, seventeenth century.

BURGLE, Johann. A maker in Griezbach, 1828.

BUSAS, Domenico. Vicenza, 1740.

BUSSETO (Buseto), Giammaria del. Cremonese viol-maker, 1540-80; said to have taught Andrea Amati.

BUSSOT. Paris, 1788.

BUTHOD. Cheap Mirecourt maker; good strong fiddles fit for orchestral use; turned out about 900 instruments a year; contemporary of Vuillaume.

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CABROLI, Lorenzo. Milan about 1716; indifferent.

CABROLY. Toulouse about 1740-47; fair.

CAESTE, Gaetano. Cremona in 1677.

CAESTO (Caesta), Pietro Antonio della. Treviso, 1660-80; copied Strad.

CAHUSAC. London about 1788. Worked with Banks’s sons.

CALCANI (Calcagni), Bernardo. In Genoa, 1710-50; copied Strad carefully and with good effect.

CALONARDI, Marco. Cremona, seventeenth century.

CALOT (Callot), b. 1810. Paris and Mirecourt; fine workman: good tone.

CALVAROLLA, Bartolommeo, of Torre Baldone (Bergamo). About 1753-67, Bologna and Bergamo; fair.

CAMILLI, Camillus (Camilus di Camila). Mantua about 1739-50; copied Strad; resembles also Landolfi; excellent tone.

CAMILLIO, Davido. Cremona, 1755.

CAPPA, Giofredo (Goffredo), 1590-1640. Worked with the Amatis; unequal in work; his instruments have often been cut down.

CAPPA, Giachimo (Gioacchino) and Giuseppe. Working in Saluzzio and in Turin about 1661-1712; indifferent.

CARCASSI, Lorenzo Francesco and Tommaso. Florence, about 1735-58; not first-rate.

CARLO, Giuseppe. Milan, 1769.

CARLOMORDI, Carlo. Verona in 1654.

CARON. Versailles, 1775-85. Maker to the Queen; not remarkable.

CARTER, John. Worked in London, 1780-90, for John Betts. Good; often sold for Betts'.

CASINI (Cassini), Antonio. Modena about 1660 to 1700. Made large violoncellos; fair.

CASPAN, Giampietro. Venice about 1650; Amati pattern; violins small, yellow varnish.

CASSANELLI, Giovanni. Ciano in 1777.

CASSINEAU. Paris; maker of all sorts.

CASTAGNERY (Castagneri), Andrea. Worked in Paris, 1732-57; he made good instruments.

CASTAGNERY (Castagneri), Gian Paolo. A maker from Cremona, who worked in Paris about 1630-62; very good and sweet tone.

CASTELLANI, Luigi, son of Pietro Castellani. Florence, 1809-84; good restorer of fiddles, but made none.

CASTELLANI, Pietro, b. Florence, second half of the eighteenth century. Made only a few violins.

CASTELLO, Paolo. Genoa about 1750-80; fair.

CASTRO. Worked in Venice, 1680-1720; indifferent appearance, but good wood.

CATENAR (Catenari), Enrico. Turin about 1670; fair; a follower of Cappa.

CATI, Pier Antonio. Florence, 1741; famous for his “kits.”

CAVALORIO. Geneva, 1725.

CELLINI, Giovanni, the father of Benvenuto Cellini, b. in Florence; d. there of the pest, 1527 or 1528. Architect; lute and viol maker. His viols, made about 1500-5, had a great reputation.

CELONIATI (Celionati). Giara Francesco, 1732. Goodmaker; Amati pattern; yellow varnish. “Joannes Franciscus Taurini, anno 1732.”

CERIN, Marc Antonio. A maker in Venice, 1780-93; pupil of Anselmo Bellosio; fair maker.

CERUTI, Enrico, son of Giuseppe Ceruti; b. 1808; d. Oct. 20, 1883. Cremona, at 14 Via Borgo Spera; made about 365 instruments; much esteemed in Italy.

CERUTI, Giovanni Battista, 1755, Cremona; d.1817. Pupil of Lorenzo Storioni; good; made about 500 instruments; varnish yellow.

CERUTI, Giuseppe, son and successor of Giovanni Battista, 1787; d. 1860, Mantua. Fair maker; chiefly repairer.

CHALLONER, Thomas. Worked in London in the eighteenth century.

CHAMPION, Jean Baptiste. Paris in 1783.

CHAMPION, René. Paris, 1731; finished and graceful; varnished like Boquay.

CHANOT, François, son of a musical instrument maker in Mirecourt; b. 1787, d. 1828.

CHANOT, Georges, a brother of François; b. March 26, 1801; d. Jan. 10, 1883.

CHANOT, Georges, son of Georges Chanot.

CHANOT, G. A. Manchester.

CHAPPUY (Chapuy), Nicolas Augustin. Paris about 1732-76; fairly good; badly varnished. Fr. Habeneck played on one of his violins for many years.

CHARDON, Marie Joseph, son-in-law and pupil of Georges Chanot, sen.; b. May 22,1843, Paris. He succeeded his father-in-law in 1872; good maker; better restorer.

CHARDON, Marie Joseph Antoine Georges. Worked under his father.

CHARLE. Paris in 1748.

CHARLES, Theress. From Mirecourt, but settled in London, in King Street, Soho.

CHAROTTE. Mirecourt; d. 1836; settled in Rouen in 1830; indifferent.

CHATELAIN, François. About 1777-91; good maker; collaborated sometimes with Renault.

CHÉRON, Nicolas. Paris, 1658-91.

CHERPITEL, Nicolas Emile. Mirecourt, 1841-93; worked with the Gands at Paris; very good workman.

CHEVRIER, André Augustin, b. in Mirecourt. Paris, and then in Brussels, 1838.

CHIAVELLATI, Domenico. Lonigo in 1796.

CHIBON, Jean Robert. Paris, 1775-85; indifferent.

CHIOCCHI (Chiocci), Gaetano. In Padua nineteenth century; good maker and repairer.

CHRÉTEN, Hippolyte, 1845-89. Lyons; excellent maker and restorer.

CRISTA, Joseph Paul. About 1730-40.

CHRISTOPHLE, Jean. Avignon, 1655.

CLARK. London, living at Clerkenwell. A pupil of Matthew Furber.

CLAUDOT, Augustin. Paris, beginning of eighteenth century; large pattern, yellow varnish; wood good, work carefully finished; branded his instruments with his name, “Augustin Claudot.”

CLAUDOT, Charles. Paris; but probably came from Mirecourt; indifferent.

CLÉMENT. Paris, about 1815-40, in the rue des Bonnes-Enfants; a good deal sought after.

COFFE-GOGUETTE. Mirecourt, 1834; excellent maker; fine tone.

COLE, James. Manchester; pupil of Tarr and George Crask, 1858.

COLE, Thomas. London about 1672-90; good tenor maker.

COLLIER, Samuel. London, at “Corelli's Head” on Loudon Bridge, about 1750-55.

COLLIER, Thomas. London, 1775.

COLLIN, Claude Nicolas. Mirecourt; d. 1864; pupil of N. F. Vuillaume, Brussels.

COLLIN-MÉZIN, Charles Jean Baptiste, son of C. N. Collin. Mirecourt, 1841-89; excellent maker and restorer; good Strad and Amati copyist.

COLLINGWOOD, Joseph. Worked in London about 1760, at the “Golden Spectacles” on London Bridge.

CONTRERAS, Joseph, 1710-80. Madrid or “Granadino;” beautiful Strad copyist; has passed for Strad.

CONTRERAS, son of Joseph Contreras.

CONWAY, William. London about 1745-50.

CORDANO, Jacopo Filippo. Genoa about 1774.

CORNELLI, Carlo. Cremona, 1702.

CORSBY, George. London; believed to be a brother of Corsby of Northampton.

CORSBY. Northampton about 1780; chiefly made double-basses.

COSTA, Agostino. Brescia and Venice in the seventeenth century.

COSTA, Marco della. Treviso, 1660-80.

COSTA, Pietro Antonio della. Worked in Treviso about 1740-65; fair Amati model

COUSINEAU, Georges, 1753-1824. In 1788 was entitled “Luthier de la reine;” made all sorts of instruments.

CRAMOND, Charles. A maker in Aberdeen, 1821-34.

CRAsK, George. Worked in various places, Salford, Manchester, &c.; prolific worker; Italian pattern.

CROSS, Nathaniel. London about 1700-51.

CROWTHER, John, 1755-1810. He worked occasionally for John Kennedy.

CUCHET, Gaspard, 1729.

CUNAULT, Georges, b. 1856, Paris; Miremont, 1874-82; a good workman.

CUNY. Paris about 1740.

CUTHBERT. Maker of viols and violins in London, seventeenth century; fair.

CUYPERS, Johannes. The Hague about 1779.

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DANIEL. Antwerp about 1636-56; two specimens in Antwerp Cathedral.

DANIEL, Charles. Marseilles in 1762.

DARCHE, C. F. Brussels; was a pupil of N. F. Vuillaume (a brother of the Parisian maker); better restorer than maker.

DARCHE, Nicholas. Aix - la - Chapelle.

DAVID. A contemporary of Pierray; Paris about 1730; indifferent.

DAVIDSON, Hay. Huntly, 1870.

Davis, Richard. London; employed by Norris and Barnes; but when Norris died in 1818, he succeeded to the business. He knew little of violin-making, and always remained more of a dealer in, than a maker of instruments.

Davis, William. London (in 1846 sold business to Edward Withers); restored violins; Maucotel worked for him.

DAY, John. Ingenious amateur maker, devoted to reproduction of Cremonas, nineteenth century.

DEARLOVE, Mark. Leeds, 1812-20.

DEARLOVE, Mark William, son of Mark Dearlove. Leeds, 1828-62; employed good workmen — Absam, Gough, Fryer.

DECOMBE (not De Comble). Paris, eighteenth century.

DE COMBLE, Ambroise, b. at Tournai, Belgium, end of the seventeenth century; worked till 1760; said to have been a pupil of Antonio Stradivari at Cremona; instruments scarce, well made, of excellent wood, and have a rich tone.

DECONET, Michele. Venice about 1742-79; Cremona school.

DEFRESNE, Pierre. Rouen, 1730.

DEHAYE (Deshayes), nephew and only pupil of Salomon, 1775-1825, Paris; more dealer than maker; sold all sorts.

DEHOMMAIS, 1870. Successful amateur maker.

DELANNOY, N. J. Lille about 1740-75; fair maker.

DELANOE, Pierre Jean. Paris, 1754.

DELANOIX. Brussels about 1760; good maker.

DELANY (Delaney), John. Dublin in 1808; an original egotist, 1808. Label bears: “Made by John Delany, in order to perpetuate his memory in future ages. Dublin, 1808. Liberty to all the world, black and white.”

DELAU, Lucien, 1836 - 48. On the death of Charotte he joined Jeandel in violin-making, and they continued the business at Rouen.

DENNIS, Jesse, 1795-1855. London; apprenticed to John Crowther, 1805; worked under Matthew Furber.

DERAZEY, J. Mirecourt; Successor to J. Nicolas, jun.; sold his fiddles; made good cheap ones, from 5 to 150 francs; a prolific firm.

DEROUX, Sébastien. Mirecourt and Paris; b. 1848; making in 1898; good restorer; best Cremona models. Signs “A. S. D.”

DESCHAMPS, Claude. Paris, 1783-85.

DESJARDINS. Caen, 1763.

DESPONS, Antoine. Paris about 1610; rare, but not very good.

DESROUSSEAU. Eighteenth century.

DEVEREUX, John. He worked with B. Simon Fendt in London; migrated to Melbourne.

DICKENSON (Dickinson), Edward. Strand, London, about 1750-90; Stainer model; inferior.

DICKESON (Dickson), John, b. in Stirling. London and Cambridge, about 1750-80; excellent.

DIDELIN, Joseph. Nancy, 1765-75; poor maker.

DIDION, Gabriel Mirecourt; d. 1881.

DIEHL (or Diel, as it was originally spelt), Friedrich, son of Nicolaus Diehl; 1814-67; Darmstadt; fair.

DIEHL (Diel), Heinrich, a son of Johann Diehl.

DIEHL (Diel), Jacob, son of Nicolaus Diehl; d. 1873; Bremen in 1834, then Hamburg.

DIEHL (Diel), Johann, a brother of Nicolaus Diehl. Mayence.

DIEHL, Martin. Mayenee, eighteenth century; work poor.

DIEHL (Diel), Nicolaus, b. 1779, d. 1851. Son of Martin Diehl, to whose business he succeeded.

DIEHL (Diel), Nicolaus Louis, d. 1876. Was a son of Jacob Diehl; worked in Hamburg; he published a work on Italian violin-makers.

DIEULAFAIT. A viol-maker; Paris in 1720.

DINI, Giambattista. Lucignano in 1707.

DITTON. London about 1700. In Thomas Britton's Collection was a “good violin by Ditton.”

DODD, Edward, b. 1705, Sheffield; d. 1810, London, at the age of 105. First bow-maker of this name. He lived in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street; buried in St. Bride's Church.

DODD, James, second son of Edward. Also made bows.

DODD, James, son of James Dodd, sen.; was a good bow-maker.

DODD, John, eldest son of Edward Dodd; b. 1752.

DODD, Thomas, third son of Edward Dodd. Employed Bernhard Fendt and Lott; proud of his varnish; an all-round man, and dealer in all sorts of instruments; violoncellos fetch £50.

DODD, Edward and Thomas, sons of Thomas Dodd, sen. Both learnt from Bernhard Fendt, and carried on the business at St. Martin's Lane.

DOMINICELLI (Domincelli). Ferrara, 1695-1715; studied in Brescia; copied the Amati pattern; varnish of a golden colour.

DOMINICHINO, Giuseppe. Verona, 1700; Amati pattern.

DONATO, Serafino. Venice, 1410-11.

DONI, Rocco. A priest in Floence, 1600-60; made lutes and violins.

DOPFER (Döpfer), Nicolaus. Mayence (?) about 1768; instruments well made, slightly arched; sound-holes small but well cut, varnish brown.

DORANT, William. Spitalfields, 1814.

DORFFEL (Dörffel), Johann Andreas. A violin and lute maker in Klingenthal, Saxony, in 1743.

DRINDA, Giacomo. Pianzo, eighteenth century.

DRÖGMEYER, Hermann August. Bremen; wrote a book on violins, 1891.

DROULEAU or Droulot. Paris, 1788-1800.

DROUYN, Dimanche. Paris.

DUCHÉRON, Mathurin. Contemporary of Boquay, working in Paris in 1714.

DUIFFOPRUGCAR (Duiffoproucart), Gaspard, 1514.

DUKE, Richard. London about 1750-80.

DUKE, Richard, son of Richard Duke.

DULFENN, Alexander. Leghorn in 1699.

DUMÉNIL, N. Paris, 1786.

DUMESNIL, Jacques. Paris about 1655-60.

DUNCAN. Aberdeen, 1762.

DUNCAN, George. Glasgow, 1887.

DURFEL (Dürfell), J. G. Altenburg, l778; double-basses excellent; violins very arched; muddy dark brown varnish.

DU RIEZ, Nicolas. A good French maker; Abbeville, 1663.

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EBERLE, Johann Ulrich. Prague about 1730- 60; good Cremona copyist.

EBERTI, Tommaso. Italian maker about 1730-50.

EDLINGER, Thomas, b. in Bohemia, and was living in Prague 1712-15. Good.

EGLINGTON. London in 1802; fair tone.

ELÉMENT, Jean Laurent. Paris in 1783.

ELSLER (Esler), Johann Joseph. Mayence about 1715-30; bass viol maker; transition on verge of the violin.

EMILIANI, Francesco de. Rome about 1715- 20; fine workman; yellow varnish.

ENGLEDER, Andreas. Munich, 1854; an original designer.

ENGLEDER, Ludwig. Bamberg, 1854; German pattern; fair tone.

ERNST, Franz Anton, b. Dec. 3, 1745, Georgenthal, Bohemia; player and maker; Stradivari pattern, and some say approached Stradivari tone.

EULRY-CLÉMENT. Mirecourt, 1800.

EURY. About 1810-30, Paris; an excellent bow-maker, 1820. He was working at 20 rue des Lyonnais-Saint-Jacques in 1820. His bows are justly celebrated, and are thought to rival even those of François Tourte. He generally marked them with his name.

EVANGELISTI. Florence, eighteenth century.

EVANS, Richard. London about 1742-50.

EVE, Jacques. German model, arched; brown varnish; good workman.

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FABRIS, Luigi. Venice in nineteenth century.

FACINI, Agostino. A monk at Bologna, 17 32-42; delicate workman; yellow varnish.

FALAISE. French follower of Pique; Cremona pattern; yellow varnish.

FARINATO, Paolo. Venice about 1700-30; fair maker, Serafino pattern.

FEBBRE. Amsterdam in 1762.

FENDT, Bernhard.

FENDT, Bernhard Simon. (

FENDT, Francis, fourth son of Bernhard Fendt.

FENDT, François, best known in France as Fent.

FENDT, Jacob, third son of Bernhard Fendt.

FENDT, Martin, second son of Bernhard Fendt.

FENDT, William, second son of Bernhard Simon.

FERATI, Pietro. Sienna, 1754-64; poor maker.

FÉRET. A pupil of Médard; Paris, 1708; good maker.

FERGUSON, Donald. Huntly, Aberdeenshire.

FERGUSON & SON.. Edinburgh, beginning of the nineteenth century.

FERRARI, Agostino. Budrio (Italy), eighteenth century.

FERRARI, Alfonso. Carpi (Modena), 1738.

FERRARI, Carlo. Sienna in 1740.

FEURY or Ferry, François, son-in-law of Leclerc the violin-maker. Paris about 1750-60; violins small pattern, the sound-holes small, varnish red, work good.

FICHTL, Martin. Vienna, 1750-57; careful in wood and varnish.

FICKER, Johann Christian. Cremona, 1720-22; German style.

FICKER, Johann Gottlieb. Cremona about 1788-89.

FIKER, Johann Christian. Neukirchen (Saxony), eighteenth century.

FIORILLO, Giovanni. Ferrara, 1780; German and Italian patterns; violoncellos are best.

FIORINI, Giuseppe, son of Raffaele Fiorini, b. 1867. Excellent maker.

FIORINI, Raffaele, b. at Pianoro. Worked at Bologna.

FIRTH, G. Leeds, 1836; pupil of William Booth, sen.

FISCER, Carlo and Giuseppe, brothers. Milan about 1760-64; inclined to German style, but good varnish.

FISCHER, Anton, b. 1794, d. 1879. Vienna.

FISCHER, Zacharie, b. Nov. 5, 1730, Würzburg; d. there Nov. 27, 1812; first began baking his wood to age it; his violins are still liked.

FLEURI (Fleury), Jean François. Paris, 1783-85.

FLEURY, Benoist. Paris, 1751-91; fair maker.

FLORENUS (Florinus), Guidantus or Florentus. Bologna about 1700-60; far from first-class.

FONCLAUSE, Joseph (called “Le Mayeux”), b. 1800, à la Conté; d. 1865, Paris. Mirecourt, and employed by Vuillaume.

FORCHEVILLE, J. Baptiste. Early pochette-maker.

FORSTER (Foster or Forrester), John, b. Kirkandrews, on the Esk.

FORSTER, Simon Andrew, son of William Forster (1764-1824).

FORSTER, William, son of John Forster; b. 1713-14; d. 1801.

FORSTER, William (“Old Forster”), son of William Forster (1713- 1801).

FORSTER, William (“ Young Forster”), son of William Forster (1739 - 1808).

FORSTER, William, eldest son of William Forster, 1764-1824. (See p. 126.)

FRAISER, Giorgio. Cremona, 1666; worked for Nicola Amati.

FRANCK. Ghent., 1800-30; chiefly a clever repairer.

FRANKLAND. London, 1785; employed by the William Forsters.

FREBRUNET, Jean. Paris, 1750-60; good maker; yellow varnish.

FRITSCHE (Fritzche), Samuel. Leipzig, 1787; pupil of C. H. Hunger; good maker (Cremona model) and fine repairer.

FRYER, Charles. London and Leeds, 1830-40.

FURBER, David. Pupil of John Johnson (1750-60), a maker in London.

FURBER, Henry John, son and pupil of John Furber.

FURBER, James, first son of Matthew Furber, sen.

FURBER, John, third son of Matthew Furber, sen.

FURBER, Matthew, sen., son of David Ferber.

FURBER, Matthew, second son of Matthew Furber, sen.

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GABRIELLI, Antonio. Florence, 1760; good violins.

GABRIELLI, Bartolommeo. Florence about 1730.

GABRIELLI, Cristoforo. Florence, 1730.

GABRIELLI, Giovanni Battista. Florence, 1740-70; good tone, excellent wood, yellow varnish; his violoncellos and altos considered best.

GAETANO, Antoniazzi, b. Aug. 7, 1825, Cremona; good rnaker, has gained medals of honour; his sons, Ricardo and Romeo, work with him.

GAFFINO, Giuseppe. An Italian, worked in Paris, 1745-83; careful maker.

GAGLIANO (Galiano), Alessandro, b. 1640.

GAGLIANO, Antonio, son of Giovanni, grandson of Nicola. (See “Raffaele Gagliano.”)

GAGLIANO, Ferdinando, eldest son of Nicola, grandson of Alessandro.

GAGLIANO, Gennaro, second son of Alessandro, brother of Nicola; b. about 1680, at Naples; d. 1750. He was the best maker of this family.

GAGLIANO, Giovanni, fourth son of Nicola, nephew of the great Gennaro; d. 1806.

GAGLIANO, Giuseppe and Antonio, second and third sons of Nicola; lived at Naples.

GAGLIANO, Nicola, eldest son of Alessandro; b. about 1675, at Naples; d. there about 1745.

GAGLIANO, Raffaele and Antonio, sons of Giovanni, grand-sons of Nicola.

GAILLARD-LAJOUE, J. B. Mirecourt; d. about 1870; first an apprentice and then first workman in the workshop of Gand; fair maker.

GAIROUD, Louis. Nantes about 1740.

GALBANI, Piero. Florence in 1640.

GALBICELLIS, G. B. Florence, 1757.

GALBUSERA, Carlo Antonio. Follower of Chanot; made a guitar-shaped model; violins much praised, but little known now.

GALERZENA. Piedmont, 1790.

GALLAND, Jean. Paris, rue St.-Honoré, about 1744-50.

GALRAM, Joachim Joseph. Lisbon in 1769.

GAND, Charles Adolphe, eldest son of Charles François Gand; b. Dec. 11, 1812, Paris; d. Jan. 24, 1866.

GAND, Charles François, eldest son of Charles Michel Gand; b. Aug. 5, 1787, Versailles.

GAND, Charles Michel, the head of the Gand family; b. 1748, at Mirecourt; d. 1820, Versailles.

GAND, Charles Nicolas Eugène, second son of Charles François Gand; b. June 5, 1825, at Paris; d. Feb. 6, 1892, Boulogne-sur-Seine.

GAND, Guillaume, second son of Charles Michel Gand, 1792-1858.

GARANI (Garana), Michelangelo. A maker in Bologna about 1680 to 1720; small value.

GARANI, Nicola. 1700. Fair instruments, Gagliano pattern; plain wood, yellow varnish.

GARENGHI, Giuseppe. Brescia, 1857.

GASPARO DA SALÒ, son of Francesco Bertolotti, b. 1542.

GATTANANI. Piedmont, 1785-90.

GATTINARI, Enrico. Turin, 1670-75.

GATTINARI, Francesco, son of Enrico Gattinari. Good maker, 1700-5; red varnish.

GAUTROT, Mirecourt, 1855.

GAVINIÉS (Gavaniès), François. 1700-63, Bordeaux; 1730 Paris, and was living in Rue St.-Thomas-du-Louvre, 1734-63. Unequal maker of violins, some cheap and poor, others very superior.

GEDLER, Johann Anthony and Johann Benedict. Fussen, Bavaria, about 1750-96. Poor violins.

GEISENHOF (Geiffenhof,Geigenhof), Franz, b. 1754; d. 1821. Fairly good.

GEMÜNDER, August, b. 1814, Würtemberg; d. Sept., 1895, New York. Excellent maker, fine copyist.

GEMÜNDER, George, brother of August Gemünder, b. 1816 in Würtemberg.

GERMAIN, Emile, son of Joseph Louis Germain. Turin, 1870-88. Studied at Mirecourt. Prolific maker, good varnish, fair tone, fine repairer.

GERMAIN, Joseph Louis, b. July 23, 1822, Mirecourt, 1868; worked with F. Gand family and B. Vuillaume. Excellent maker and repairer.

GERONI, Domenico. Ostia, Italy, about 1800-20. Inferior.

GRERARDI, Giacomo. Bologna, 1677.

GHIDINI, Carlo. Parma, about 1746.

GIANOLI, Domenico. Milan, 1731.

GIBBS, James. London, 1800-45. Was employed by J. Morrison, George Corsby, and Samuel Gilkes.

GIBERTINI, Antonio. Parma, 1830-33. Stradivari pattern. Employed by Paganini as a repairer.

GIGLI, Julio Cesare. Rome, 1730-62.

GILBERT, Nicolas Louis. Metz, 1700.

GILBERT, Simon, son of Nicolas Louis Gilbert. Metz, about 1737.

GILKES, Samuel, 1787-1827. Morton Pinkney, Northamptonshire. London. Worked for William Forster (1764-1824). Nicola Amati pattern; clever maker.

GILKES, William, son of Samuel Gilkes, about 1811-75, in Grey Coat Street, Tothill Fields, Westminster, London. Prolific maker; chiefly double basses.

GIOFFREDA, B. Turin, in 1860.

GIORDANO (Giordane), Alberto. Cremona, about 1735-40.

GIORGI, Nicola. Turin, 1745.

GIRANIANI. Leghorn, 1730.

GIRON. (See "Villaume")

GIULIANI. Cremona, 1660. Pupil of Nicola Amati.

GOBETTI, Francesco. Venice, 1705. A pupil of Antonio Stradivari. Alleged fine wood, varnish, and tone.

GOFFRILLER (Gofriler), Antonio. Venice, 18th century.

GOFFRILLER, Francesco. Venice. Fair maker; yellow-brown varnish.

GOFFRILLER, Matteo. Venice, 1690-1740. Careless in wood but careful in work; yellow varnish; arched pattern violin excellent.

GONNET, Pierre Jean. Paris, 1775-83.

GOSSELIN. An amateur maker in Paris about 1814-30.

GOSSET. Rheims, 1769.

GOUVERNARI, Antonio. Cremona, 1600-10.

GRABENSEE, J. A. Düsseldorf, about 1850-55.

GRAGNANI. Antonio. Leghorn, about 1741-80. Rough workmanship; inferior wood; sweet tone.

GRAGNANI, Gennaro. Leghorn, 1730.

GRAGNANI, son of Antonio Gragnani. Inferior to his father.

GRANCINO. Francesco and Giam Battista, sons of Giovanni and grandsons of Paolo Grancino. 1710-60.

GRANCINO, Giovanni, son of Paolo Grancino. Milan 1690-1730.

GRANCINO, Paolo. Worked at Milan, 1665-90. Pupil of Nicola Amati at Cremona.

GRAND-GÉRARD. Vosges, 1790-1810. Also Paris. Prolific but inferior.

GRANDINI, Geronimo, sen. Mirecourt. Some merit.

GRANDJON, sen. Mirecourt.

GRANDJON, J., son of Grandjon, sen. Mirecourt. Fair maker.

GRAY, J. Fochabers, Banffshire, Scotland, in 1870.

GREFFTS, Johann. Fussen, Bavaria, in 1622.

GREGORI. Bologna, 1793.

GRIMM, Carl, b. about 1792; d. 1855, Berlin. One of the best German makers.

GRIMM, Ludwig, son of Carl Grimm.

GRISERI, Filippo. Florence in 1650.

GROBITZ, A. Warsaw in 1750. Good violins on the Stainer pattern.

GROLL, Matthew. Meran, Tyrol, in 1800.

GROSSET, Paul François. Paris, 1747-59. Pupil of Claude Pierray. Inferior.

GROSSI., Giuseppe. Bologna in 1803.

GROU. 1752.

GRULLI, Pietro. Cremona, 1883.

GUADAGNINI, Antonio, son of Gaetano, grandson of Carlo Guadagnini, b. 1831; d. 1881 at Turin.

GUADAGNINI, Felice, son of Carlo Guadagnini. Turin, 1835.

GUADAGNINI, Francesco and Giuseppe, sons of Antonio Guadagnini. Turin.

GUADAGNINI, Gaetano, son of Giambattista, grandson of Lorenzo. Turin about 1750.

GUADAGNINI, Gaetano. (See “Carlo Guadagnini.”)

GUADAGNINI, Giambattista, son of Lorenzo, b. 1711 at Cremona; d. Sept. 18, 1786, at Turin.

GUADAGNINI, Giovanni Battista, brother of Lorenzo Guadagnini. Milan, Piacenza, and Turin about 1695-1775.

GUADAGNINI, Giuseppe, second son of Giambattista, grandson of Lorenzo, b. 1736; d. about 1805.

GUADAGNINI, Giuseppe. (See “Carlo Guadagnini.”)

GUADAGNINI, Giuseppe. (See “Francesco Guadagnini.”)

GUADAGNINI, Lorenzo, b. at Piacenza (?) about 1665. A pupil of Antonio Stradivari at Cremona.

GUARINI, Joseph. Germigny, Vosges. Good violins, double purfle, powerful tone.

GUARNERI, Andrea, b. about 1626 at Cremona; d. there Dec. 7, 1698. (For the Guarneri family

GUARNERI, Caterina (?), daughter of Andrea.

GUARNERI, Gian Battista, son of Bernardo, younger brother of Andrea.

GUARNERI, Giuseppe, known as “del Gesù,” the greatest of the family.

GUARNERI, Giuseppe Giovan Battista, second son of Andrea, b. Nov. 25, 1666, Cremona; d. soon after 1738.

GUARNERI, Pietro, son of Giuseppe Giovan Battista Guarneri, grandson of Andrea, b. April 14, 1695. 1760.

GUARNERI, Pietro Giovanni, eldest son of Andrea, b. Feb. 18, 1655, at Cremona; d. about 1740.

GUÉDON, Jacques Antoine. Paris, 1775-77.

GUÉRIN, Alexandre Sauveur, 1834-88, Hyères. Pupil and successor of Edmond Daniel; works at Marseilles; repairs old instruments and makes new ones on the pattern of Stradivari; much admired.

GUERRA, Giacomo. Modena, 1810.

GUERSAN, Louis. A maker in Paris about 1730-69; one of the best French makers; great experimentalist; used spirit varnish.

GUGEMMOS (Gugemos). Fussen, Bavaria. Eighteenth century; poor maker.

GUGLIELMI, Giobattista. Cremona, 1747.

GUIDANTUS, Joannes Florenus. Bologna, 1685-1728.

GUIDOMINI, Lorenzo. Milan, 1740.

GUILLAMI. A Spanish family, 1680-1780.

GUITON, R., of Cork. Good.

GUSETTO, Nicola. Florence, 1730.

GUTERMANN. Vienna, nineteenth century. Good.

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HAENSEL, Johann Anton. Was maker and musician to the Duke of Schönburg at Rochsburg, 1800-15.

HAFF. Augsburg, eighteenth century.

HAMBERGER, Joseph. Pressburg, Hungary. Firm still makers at Vienna.

HAMM, Johann Gottfried. A German who worked in Rome about 1810; violins ivory edged.

HAMMIG, W. H. Leipzig, tenth century; good work.

HARBOUR or Harbur. A maker, London, 1785.

HARDANGER. Norway.

HARDIE, James, & Sons. Edinburgh, 1837-90. Industrious makers and exhibitors. Maggini, Stradivari, and Guarneri models.

HARDIE, Matthew, 1825, and Thomas, 1856. Good violins, violas, and violoncellos on the Amati pattern.

HARDIE, Peter. Dunkeld, 1773-1863. Excellent violoncellos.

HARE, Joseph (or John), 1700-30. Reacted against Stainer pattern in favour of Stradivari. London, 1726.

HARHAM. London, 1765-85.

HARMAND. Mirecourt in 1772.

HARRIS, Charles. London, 1780-1800. Seldom labelled; his work good, especially 'cellos, Stradivari and Amati pattern; red varnish.

HARRIS, Charles, eldest son of Charles Harris. Worked for John Hart, nineteenth century; yellow varnish.

HART, John Thomas, 1805-74, London. Pupil of Samuel Gilkes; made few instruments; reputation for experience and skill in repairing.

HASSERT. Eisenach, eighteenth century. Good instruments, not much arched, beautiful wood, amber - coloured varnish; good copyist.

HASSERT. A brother. Eisenach, 1790, in Rudolstadt. Instruments too much arched; rather harsh tone.

HAYNES, Jacob. London, 1746. Stainer pattern.

HEBERLEIN, Heinrich, jun. Clever maker in Markneukirchen, nineteenth century.

HEESOM, Edward. London, 1748-50. Stainer pattern.

HEIDEGGER. Passau.

HEL, Pierre Joseph, 1842-95. Seven years in Mirecourt, then with Sébastien Vuillaume in Paris, and Nicolas Darche at Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1865 he started his own business at 14 Rue Nationale, Lille; full of ingenuity; peculiar methods of seasoning wood without fire; has received much praise and many honours; a beautiful maker.

HELD, J. J., b. July 17, 1823-89, Flamersheim, Rheinbach (Cologne). Great repairer and careful maker of about sixteen instruments a year; much esteemed.

HELL, Ferdinand. Vienna, 1854. Eccentric maker of a trumpet-violin.

HELMICH. Continued Carl Grimm's business.

HENDERSON, D. Aberdeen.

HÉNOC (or Hénocq), François. Paris, 1775-89.

HÉNOC (Hénocq), Jean (? Georges Bienaimé). Maker, Paris, 1768 to about 1790.

HENRY. Paris.

HENRY, Carolus, son of Jean Baptiste Henry, 1803-59; prolific maker; inventor of a barytone fiddle (not a success); a good maker otherwise.

HENRY, Eugène, son of Charles Henry, 1843-92; an excelcellent maker of fine repairs; business continued by Charles Bruyère.

HENRY, Jean Baptiste, b. 1757-1831, Mataincourt, Mirecourt (Vosges). He was the head of the present family of makers.

HENRY, Jean Baptiste Félix, eldest son of Jean Baptiste Henry. 1793-1858. Paris. Pupil of his father; in Bordeaux, 1822; in Marseilles, 1825. In 1844 he returned to Paris. A prolific maker, but never signed.

HENRY, Octave, son of Jean Baptiste Félix Henry. 1826-54. Paris. In Grenoble in 1854; made a great many violins.

HENRY. A violin bow-maker; 1812 at Mirecourt; 1870, Paris; worked with Chanot; made excellent bows.

HILDEBRANDT, Michael Christopher. Hamburg, 1765-1800; good work; fine repairer.

HILL, Henry Lockey, son of Lockey Hill; grandson of Joseph Hill; b. 1774; d. Aug., 1835.

HILL, John. Red Lion Street, Holborn, 1794.

HILL, Joseph, b. 1715; d. 1784. He was a fellow-apprentice of Banks, working at “Ye Harp and Hautboy,” in Piccadilly, London, under Peter Wamsley, about 1740-42. Worked till 1772. His sons, William, Joseph, Lockey, and Benjamin, were all makers.

HILL, William, son of Joseph Hill. Worked in London about 1740-80.

HILL, William Ebsworth, son of Henry Lockey Hill, 1817-95. The present members of the firm are his four eldest sons: William Henry, b. June 3, 1857, followed the musical profession for some years before joining his brothers in the business; Arthur Frederick, b. Jan. 25, 1860; Alfred Ebsworth, b. Feb. 1862, who worked for some time at Mirecourt (Vosges), and was the first Englishman to go there to study; and Walter Edgar, b. Nov. 4, 1871, who also worked at Mirecourt. They employ a large staff of assistants in their workshops at Hanwell.

HIRCUTT. London about 1600.

HOCHBRÜCKER. Donauworth,Bavaria, 1699. Later at Augsburg. Made some violins, but is chiefly known as the inventor of pedals for the harp, about 1720.

HÖHNE. Dresden and Weimar.

HÖRLEIN, Carl Adam, b. 1829-75. Winkelhof, Würzburg; great reputation both as maker and repairer.

HOFFMANN, Anton. Court-maker in Vienna, 1850.

HOFFMANN, Martin. Leipzig, 1725; in Leipzig from about 1685; violins and violoncellos of good tone, inelegant pattern; shows well the transition period between viol and violin by recurrence to older types of a five-stringed violon-cello.

HOFMANS, Matthias. Antwerp, 1700-50; choice maker in the Cremona style.

HOLLOWAY, John. London, 1794.

HOMOLKA, F. Kuttenberg, Bohemia, 1850; good maker, but wood rather too thick.

HOPKINS. Worcester; exhibited a double-bass in London in 1862.

HORIL, Giacomo. Rome, 1720-50.

HORNSTEINER (Hornstainer), Joseph. Mittenwald, 1730; good double-basses; mediocre.

HORNSTEINER (Hornstainer), Mathias. Maker in Mittenwald, 1770-1800; better than Joseph.

HOSBORN, Thomas Alfred. London, 1629. A bass viol exhibited in Paris, 1878.

HUET, Henri. Paris, 1775-90; good workmanship.

HULINSKI. Prague in 1760; instruments were well made; varnish red-brown.

HULLER, August. Shœneck, 1735-76.

HULSKAMP, G. H., b. in Westphalia. Settled in New York, U.S.A. In the 1862 London Exhibition he exhibited violins made on a new pattern. Instead of the ordinary sound-holes, was one round hole in the middle of the violin, just below where the bow sets the strings in motion; his innovations ineffectual.

HUMEL, Christian. Nuremberg in 1709.

HUNGER, Christoph Friedrich, b. 1718, Dresden; d. 1787, Leipzig; excellent instruments.

HUREL, Jean. Paris, living in 1686, Rue des Arcis, at the sign of “A l’image de St. Pierre;” from 1689 to 1717, Rue St. Martin, near the Fontaine Maubué. He was maker of instruments “pour la musique du Roy.”

HUSSON. See “Buthod.

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IVRONTIGNI, Wougelli. Turin.

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JACOBS, Peeter. Amsterdam about 1690-1740; prolific maker; sometimes mistaken for Nicola Amati; grand pattern; whalebone purfling; sweet tone.

JACOBS. Amsterdam; probably son of Peeter; used dark red varnish of good quality.

JACOT, A., eldest son of Jean Charles. Paris, 19th century.

JACOT, Jean Charles. Metz, 1811-87.

JACQUOT (Jacquart), Charles, 1804-80. Mirecourt; much esteemed; careful finish; a learned connoisseur and successful exhibitor.

JACQUOT, Etienne Charles Albert, eldest son of Pierre Charles Jacquot, b. 1853-82, Nancy.

JACQUOT, Jules Victor, second son of Pierre Charles Jacqnot, b. Aug. 12, 1855.

JACQUOT, Pierre Charles, son of Charles Jacquot; b. March 10, 1828-94. Nancy; had a great reputation, and exhibited beautiful instruments at various Exhibitions; his two sons worked with him.

JAIS, Johann. Botzen, 1775; varnished brown.

J'ANSON, Edward Popplewell. Manchester. Learnt from William Booth, jun.

JAUCH, Johann, b.Gratz, Styria; in Dresden, 1765-74. Cremona pattern; learned maker; tone rather harsh.

JAY, Henry. A maker of viols in London about 1615-67; justly celebrated, and on the verge of the violin period.

JAY, Henry. Worked in London about 1746-68. He was best known for the small violins or “kits” that he made, which were used by dancing-masters; also made some violoncellos.

JAY, Thomas. Working in London from about 1690; made some excellent violins.

JEANDEL, Pierre Napoleon. 1812-79. Courcelles-sons-Vaudémont (Meurthe), Rouen, and Paris; red varnish; good tone.

JOHNSON, John. London, 1750-60. Stainer pattern.

JOMBAR, Paul. Paris. He worked for Gand and Ber­nardel; started his own business in 1892.

JORIO, Vincenzo. Naples, 1847. Good.

JOSEPH, J. Vienna, 1764.

JULIANO, Francesco. Home, 1620-70.

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KEMBTER. Dibingen, 1725-30. Varnish yellow or reddish; neat maker.

KENNEDY, Alexander. Scotland, 1695-1785. Excellent maker; high repute; spirit varnish, brown; Stainer pattern.

KENNEDY, John. London, 1816. Buried in Shoreditch Church. Pupil of Alexander Kennedy. Violins and violas, all very arched; Stainer pattern.

KENNEDY, Thomas, 1784-1870, London. Son of John Kennedy. Worked sometimes for William Forster; made at least 300 violoncellos, as well as other instruments. Good tone, fine finish.

KERLINo, Joann.

KIAPOSSE, Sawes. St. Petersburg, 1748-50.

KIESGEN, Louis. Paris. Fine workman. Pattern of Gand; red varnish.

KIRSCHSCHLAG. Tyrol, 1780.

KLEIN, A. In 1884, Rouen. Important firm. Red varnish. High Exhibition awards.

KLOSS, Ernst. Breslau.

KLOTZ (Kloz), Egidius.

KLOTZ, George, son of Mathias and grandson of Egidius Klotz. Mittenwald, 1750-70.

KLOTZ, Johann Carl. Mittenwald about 1740-55. Excellent work; dark varnish.

KLOTZ, Joseph, brother of George Klotz. Mittenwald, 1774. Also followed the Stainer pattern.

KLOTZ, Mathias, son and pupil of Egidius. 1650. His three sons, George, Sebastian, and Joseph, were all makers.

KLOTZ, Michael and Carl, two brothers. Mittenwald about 1770. A great many of the violins with “Stainer” labels are made by members of the Klotz family.

KLOTZ, Sebastian, a brother of Joseph and George Klotz. 1700-40. The best maker in the family. Large pattern, not much arched; varnish is excellent, the tone clear and full.

KLÜHER. Markneukirchen, Saxony.

KNITTING, Philipp. Mittenwald, 1760.

KNITTLE (Knitl), Joseph. Mittenwald, 1790.

KNOOP, Wilhelm. Meiningen. Stainer pattern; good.

KOEUPPERS, Jean. The Hague, 1755-80. Well-made fiddles; ugly yellow varnish.

KOLB, Hans. Bavaria, 1666.

KOLDITZ, Johann. Rumburg, Bohemia, 1796. Good violins and violas.

KOLDITZ, Mathias Johann. Munich, 1720-55.

KOLIKER, Jean Gabriel. Paris,1783-99. Clever repairer.

KRAMER, H. Vienna in 1717.

KRIGGE, Heinrich. Danzig, 1756-58. Maggini pattern, model large size, neat edges and work, and double purfling in ink.

KRINER, Joseph. Mittenwald, 1785-95.

KRUPP, Pierre. Worked in Paris, Rue St. Honoré, 1777-91; he also made harps.

KÜHLEWEIN UND TETZNER. Makers in Marknenkirclien. Exhibited in Munich, 1854.

KÜNTZEL. Berlin. He exhibited a quintet of instruments in London, 1862; tone excellent.

KUNTZEL, Laurent. 1790. Hof Bavaria and Breslau, 1815-55. Excellent violins on Italian model.

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LACROIX, Salomon. Nineteenth century.

LAFLEUR. London, brother of the Parisian maker.

LAFLEUR, Jacques. A bow-maker in Paris. Excellent disciple of Tourte.

LAFLEUR, Joseph René, son of Jacques. 1812-74. Excellent bow-maker.

LAFRANCHINI, Jacobo de. Worked for Maggini.

LAGETTO, Louis. An Italian maker; Paris, 1745-53; early Italian model.

LAMBERT. Prolific but indifferent maker.

LAMBERT, Jean Nicolas. Paris, 1743-85. Not remarkable.

LAMBIN. Clever repairer in Ghent, 1800-30.

LAMY, N. Alfred Joseph. A bow-maker; 1850-89, Mirecourt; excellent.

LANDI, Pietro. Sienna, 1774.

LANDOLFI, Carlo Ferdinando. Milan, 1740-75. Unequal maker; at his best often mistaken for Joseph or Peter Guarnerius; £50 outside price, but rising in value.

LANTEZ, M. E., son-in-law of Grandjon, sen. Mirecourt.

LANZA (Lansa or Lausa), Antonio Maria. Brescia about 1675; followed the patterns of Gasparo da Salò and Maggini; excellent maker.

LAPAIX, J. A. Lille (Nord, France), 1840-55. Tried many new shapes with moderate success; industrious and ingenious.

LAPRÉVOTTE, Etienne. Mirecourt; 1856, Paris. Made good violins; beautifully finished; also guitars.

LARCHE. Brussels, 1847. Dyed his fiddles with acids, with usual result of impoverished tone.

LARCHER, Pierre. Tours, 1785. Pupil of Guersan, Paris, but work dissimilar; brown varnish of poor quality.

LASKA. Joseph. 1738-1805, Prague. Pupil of J. Kolditz; worked for best makers in Dresden, Berlin, Vienna, and Brünn; his violins popular in Bohemia, Saxony, and Poland.

LAUTTEN, L. W. Tyrol. One “fine and handsome” violin known.

LAVAZZA (or Lacasso), Antonio Maria. Milan about 1700; Stradivari pattern; good varnish, pale red.

LAVAZZA, Santino. Was working in Milan at the same time as Antonio Maria Lavazza.

LEE. Pressburg, eighteenth century; one of the best German makers of his time.

LE BLANC. Family of makers who, through four generations, worked in Paris, eighteenth century.

LEBLANC, Claude. Mirecourt, eighteenth century.

LECLERC, J. N. Paris, 1760-80; good maker and repairer.

LECOMTE (or Fouquet-Lecomte), Antoine. Paris, 1775-1800.

LECUYER, Pierre. Paris, 1775-83.

LEDUC, Pierre. Paris, 1647; one of the oldest makers there.

LEEB, J. Carl. 1792-1819. Vienna.

LEFEBVRE (Lefebre), J. B. A Frenchman who worked in Amsterdam, 1735-70; Amati pattern; yellow varnish.

LEFÈVRE (Lefebvre). Toussaint Nicolas Germain. Paris, 1783-89.

LEGROS de la Neuville, Nicolas. French maker, eighteenth century; guitars, violins, and violoncellos.

LE JEUNE. A family of makers who for several generations worked in Paris; nineteenth century.

LE JEUNE, François. Paris, eighteenth century; violins and viols; not remarkable.

LE JEUNE, Jean Baptiste. Made harps and violins in Paris; eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

LE JEUNE, Jean Charles. Paris in 1776; succeeded by his nephew, Guillaume Martin, in 1822.

LE JEUNE, Louis. Paris, 1783-89.

LE LIEVRE. Paris, 1750-80.

LEMBÖCK, Gabriel. 1814-92. Budapest; worked with Fischer in Vienna; copied Guarnerius; much esteemed.

L'EMPEREUR, Jean Baptiste. Paris, 1750; few instruments.

LENK, W., b. 1840; 1881, Schönbach bei Eger, Bohemia; worked under Klüher in Markneukirchen; then Berlin, Breslau, Vienna; finally settled at Frankfort; fair maker.

LENTZ (Lenz), Johann Nicolaus. Came from the Tyrol to London; friend of Bernhard Fendt; varnished like Dodd and J. F. Lott.

LEONI, Carlo. Treviso, 1861.

LEONI. Parma in 1816.

LE PILEUR, Pierre. Paris, 1750-55. Not very good.

LÉTÉ, Simon, b. about 1768; 1828 made very cheap, good fiddles for £l; at one time a partner of J. B. Vuillaume.

LEWIS, Edward. London about 1700. An excellent maker; yellow and red varnish; in Thomas Britton's collection was an “excellent tenor by Mr. Lewis” and a “rare good” bass-violin.

LIEBICH, Ernst, b. Oct. 27, 1796-1876; Stradivari and Guarneri pattern; he was the father of

LIEBICH, Ernst. 1830-84, Breslau. Italian pattern. His son,

LIEBICH, Ernst. 1862-95, Breslau. Excellent repairer; makes few, but good; best Italian patterns.

LIEBICH, Johann Gottfried, 1752-1813.

LIEDOLF, Joseph Ferdinand. Vienna, eighteenth century.

LIGNOLI, Andrea. Florence, seventeenth century.

LILLY, James. An English maker, 1821.

LINAROLO (Linerolli), Francesco Giovanni. A family, seventeenth century; on the verge of the violin period; some of their instruments have been adapted for tenors.

LIPPETA, J. G. Neukirchen, Saxony, 1771.

LIPPOLD, Johann Georg. 1780. Fair maker; brown varnish.

LOLIO, Giambattista. 18th cent.

LOLY, Jacopo. Naples, 1627. Pattern of Grancino; yellow varnish; made large–sized tenors.

LONGMAN AND BRODERIP, dealers who employed Jay or Benjamin Banks, and labelled with their own names.

LORENZINI, Gaspare. Piacenza, eighteenth century.

LOTT, George Frederick. 1775-1853.

LOTT, George Frederick. 1800-1868.

LOTT, John Frederick, son of G. F. Lott.

LOTZ, Theodor. Pressburg, 1730-40. Good violins.

LOUIS. Geneva.

LOUVET, Jean, brother of Pierre Louvet. Paris, 1730-60. Made bad fiddles, but good hurdy-gurdys and harps.

LUDICI (Ludge), Geronimo Pietro. An amateur maker in Conegliano in 1709.

LUGLONI, Giuseppe. Venice in 1777.

LUPO, Pietro. Antwerp. In 1559 he is said to have sold to a musician sent by the town of Utrecht, “five violins enclosed in their case,” for the sum of £72.

LUPÔT, François, son of Laurent Lupôt.

LUPOT, Nicolas. The greatest of the family.

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MACGEORGE. Edinburgh, 1800-20.

MACINTOSH. Dublin, 1830-40. Pupil of Thomas Perry.

MAFFEOTTO, Giuseppe. Rome, eighteenth century.

MAGGINI (Magino or Maglino), Gio Paolo.

MAIRE, Nicolas. A violin bow-maker in Paris; 1800, in Mirecourt; 1878, Paris; apprenticed to Jacques Lafleur; he made excellent bows.

MALDONNER. Fussen, Bavaria, 1760.

MANN, Hans. Naples, 1720-50. His instruments are rare; Stradivari and Guarneri patterns.

MANTEGAZZA (or Mantegatia), Pietro and Giovanni. Two brothers working in Milan about 1750 to 1800; they made many good altos.

MANTOVANI. Parma, eighteenth century.

MARATTI, Giambattista. Verona about 1690-1700. Good tone.

MARCELLI, Giovanni. Cremona in 1696.

MARCHETTI, Enrico. Turin, nineteenth century. Good maker.

MARCHI, Giovanni Antonio. Bologna, 1740-95. Good violoncellos and violins; violins high model; beautiful maple-wood back and sides; varnish golden yellow.

MARCO, Antonio. Venice, 1700.

MARCONCINI, Giuseppe. Pupil of Storioni; Ferrara, where he died at a great age, 1841; unequal maker; very good sometimes.

MARCONCINI, Luigi. A pupil of Omobono Stradivari, 1760; Ferrara and Bologna; good workmanship; pale red varnish.

MARIANI, Antonio. Pesaro, 1640 to 1700; not of much value; reminds of Maggini, but rough; purfling double.

MARINO, Bernardino. Rome. Worked up to 1805.

MARQUIS DE LAIR. Mirecourt, 1800. Violins and violoncellos of Stradivari pattern; work poor, the wood not good; varnish ugly brown; tone bad.

MARSHALL, John. London about 1750-60. Stainer pattern; work good.

MARTIN. A family of makers in Paris, chiefly repairers.

MARTIN, Jules. Germigny, Vosges.

MARTIN. London, 1790-95, who lived at Hermitage Bridge, Wapping.

MAST, Jean Laurent. Paris, 1750. His instruments are well made; violins; blackish varnish.

MAST, Josephus Laurent, son of Jean Laurent Mast. Mirecourt; still there in 1820; better than his father, but not very noteworthy.

MAUCOTEL, Charles, brother of Charles Adolphe Maucotel. 1807-60. Mirecourt. Studied under Gand; went to London; excellent tone.

MAUCOTEL, Charles Adolphe, brother of Charles. 1820-58, Mirecourt. Apprenticed in Mirecourt; went to Paris; worked under J. B. Vuillaume; excellent copyist of Stradivari.

MAUSSIELL (or Mansiedl), Leonhardt. Nuremberg, 1720-50. Stainer pattern; very good.

MAYR (Maier), Andreas Ferdinand. Salzburg, about 1740-80. Is said to have made the small violin on which Mozart learnt to play.

MAYSON, Walter H. A maker in Manchester who began as an amateur, but soon adopted violin-making as a profession. His instruments are excellent.

MEARES, Richard. A maker of lutes. London in 1677; lute and viol-maker on verge of the violin.

MÉDARD, Antoine, b. 1621.

MÉDARD, François.

MÉDARD, Henri.

MÉDARD, Jean.

MÉDARD, Nicolas.

MÉDARD, Sébastien.

MEIBERI, Francesco. Leghorn, 1745-50.

MELLING. Paris, 1753-71.

MELLINI, Giovanni. Guastalla, Italy, 1768.

MELONI, Antonio. Milan, about 1670-95. Followed the Amati pattern; his instruments are small, but good tone.

MENNÉGAND, Charles. Nancy, 1885. Apprenticed at Mirecourt; went to Paris and Amsterdam; worked with Rambaux; returned to Turin; consummate repairer.

MENNESSON, Emile. 1842-98, Rheims. Has made 2380 violins; fine copyist of Stradivari's “Messiah” period; gold medalist.

MÉRIOTTE, Charles. Lyons about 1730-60. Made on the Stradivari pattern; yellow brown varnish; good workmanship.

MERLIN, Joseph. London, 1770-80. His violins and his mechanical pegs for violins and violoncellos at first the vogue, but have not maintained their place; he followed the high Stainer model; instruments were well made, but tone not good.

MESSEGUER. A Spanish maker, 1646.

METTE, François. A maker in the South of France.

MEZADRI (Mezzadie), Alessandro. Ferrara, 1690-1720. Amati school, but failed to rival their grace; inferior tone.

MEZADRI (Mezzadie), Francesco. A maker at Milan about 1700-20; his altos were of small pattern.

MIALFI, Joannes. A Spanish maker about 1769; nothing remarkable.

MICHAUD. Paris about 1788.

MICHELIS, Pelegrino (or Peregrino) di Zanetto, son of Zanetto de Michelis, b. 1520. Made lutes and other instruments in Brescia; on the verge of the violin; a fine tenor known.

MICHELOT, Jacques Pierre. Paris about 1780-95, at the sign of “A la Mélodie.” He made five-stringed viols and violins.

MIER. London, 1786.

MIGGÉ, Otto, b. June 16, 1857, Coblenz; made 80 violins and 14 violoncellos; good tone.

MILANI, Francesco. Milan about 1740- 60. School of Lorenzo Guadagnini.

MILHET. Bayonne, 1820.

MILLE. Aix-la-Chapelle. A small pocket-violin is known.

MILLER. London, 1750.

MILLER, A. St. Andrew's, Scotland.

MINOZZI, Matteo. Bologna, eighteenth century.

MIRAUCOURT, Ludovic (or Joseph). On verge of violin; still made viols in 1743.

MIREMONT, Claude Augustin, son of Sébastien Miremont. 1827, Mirecourt; d. 1887, Pontorson (Manche); in 1844 to Paris, and worked first with Lafleur, then with Bernardel until 1852, when he left France for America, and settled in New York; returned to France; made chiefly violon-cellos; excellent tone; Stradivari pattern.

MIREMONT, Sébastien. Mireeourt, 1810.

MODESSIER. Paris in 1810. His instruments a large pattern; excellent wood.

MOERS, Jean Henri. Paris, 1771.

MOHR, Philipp. Hamburg, 1650.

MOINEL, Charles, nephew of N. E. Cherpitel Paris, 1893. Continued Cherpitel's busi­ness.

MOITESSIER, Louis. Mirecourt, 1780 to 1825. He made a large number of instruments; many violins; rather common; fair tone.

MOLDONNER. Fussen, Bavaria, 1756-98.

MOLINARI, Antonio. Venice, 1672-1703.

MONGENOT. Rouen, 1763.

MONTADE (Montani or Montaldi), Gregorio. Cremona, 1690-1735. Pupil or imitator of Omobono Stradivari; fairly good.

MONTAGNANA, Domenico. A celebrated maker in Venice about 1720-50.

MONTRON. Paris, 1780-90.

MORELLA, Morglato. A maker of lutes, rebecs, and viols, 1510-50; has lasted into the violin epoch on account of his viols having been cut down for violas.

MORONA, Antonio. Istria (Istrien) in 1731.

MORRISON, John. 1760-1830. Poor maker; did job work for the trade.

MOTTENHAVER, Edward. New York, U.S.A., who has taken out a great many patents for inventions.

MOUGENOT, Georges. 1843-98 Mirecourt (Vosges). Worked in Brussels for N. F. Vuillaume, and succeeded him; uses “hands,” but plans and finishes himself; gold medallist.

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NADOTTI, Giuseppe. Piacenza, 1760-70.

NAMY, Jean Théodore. Paris, 1755-1807; fine restorer; worked for Salomon's widow in Paris.

NAYLOR, Isaac. A pupil of Richard Duke; worked at Headingly, near Leeds, 1778-92.

NERMEL, J. M. Paris, 1777-89.

NEUNER, Ludwig. 1840, Mittenwald (Bavaria). Grandson of Mathias Neuner, also a clever maker of violins, who worked for some time in London; worked for J. B. Vuillaume, Paris; settled in Berlin; accomplished maker; sends out from his firm 20,000 instruments a year; very cheap and good money's worth; can do better quality when he chooses.

NEWTON, Isaac. London about 1775-1825. He made fairly good instruments, but used a dingy yellow varnish. Sometimes made violins and violoncellos for Betts, but these were always varnished by the latter.

NEZOT. Paris, 1730-60; transition maker from viols to violins; only a few violins.

NICOLAS, Didier, l'aîné (known as “deaf Nicolas”), 1757-1833, Mirecourt; clever workman and large employer; large pattern, loud tone; suitable for orchestra.

NICOLAS, François Nicolas Fourrier (was known simply as “Nicolas”), b. Oct. 5, 1758. 1816, Paris. Made all the instruments used in the private orchestra of Napoleon I.; careful choice of wood; good proportions; closely copied from beautiful specimens of Cremona; not much in fashion now, but good violins of his still about.

NICOLAS, Joseph, son of Didier Nicolas. 1796-1864. Mirecourt; eccentric maker; after his death his stamp and his father's sold off with stock, and used for violins made by neither. Pupil and successor of his father.

NICOLAS, Mathieu. Mirecourt. His instruments of ordinary workmanship, some yellow or red varnish.

NIGGELL, Simpertus. A maker of viols and violins. Fussen, 1743-66; transition maker of viols and violins; flat pattern.

NORBORN, John. London, 1723.

NORMAN, BARAK, b. 1688; d. 1740.

NORRIS, John, b. 1739, London; d. March 10, 1818; pupil of Thomas Smith; went into partnership with Robert Barnes in 1765.

NOVELLO, Pietro Valentino, brother of Marco Antonio Novello. Venice, eighteenth century.

NOVELLO, Marco Antonio, a brother of Pietro Valentino Novello; in Venice at the same time; good work.

NOVERSI, Cosimo. Florence, seventeenth century.

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OBBO, Marco. Naples, 1712; ordinary work.

OBICI (Obue), Bartolommeo. Verona in 1684.

ODANI, Giuseppe Morello. Naples, 1738.

ODOARDI, Giuseppe. Working until 1675, Ascoli, Italy; some confusion about his date, 1675-1740; died at 28; self-taught; an original genius; about two hundred violins; much valued when can be found.

OHBERG, Johann. Stockholm in 1773; fairly good; a yellow varnish.

ONEDA, Gio. Battista, b. 1529. A maker of cithers and violins (?) in Brescia about 1562.

ONGARO, Ignazio. Venice, 1783.

ORLANDELLI, Paolo. Codogno, Italy, eighteenth century.

ORTEGA. 1840; maker and repairer. Madrid.

OSTLER, Andreas. Breslau, 1730; chiefly viols.

OTTO, Carl August, fourth son of J. A. Otto; b. 1801, Jena; d. 1883, Ludwigslust; maker to the Mecklenberg-Schwerin Court.

OTTO, Carl Christian, second son of J. A. Otto, 1792; Halle; repairs old instruments.

OTTO, C. W. F. Louis, fifth son of J. A. Otto, 1805-84, Stockholm.

OTTO, Georg August Gottfried, eldest son of J. A. Otto; 1789, Weimar; 1857, Jena; good maker.

OTTO, Heinrich Wilhelm, third son of J. A. Otto; b. 1796. Amsterdam and Berlin.

OTTO, Hermann, son of Ludwig Otto, 1859-84. Cologne, St. Petersburg.

OTTO, Jacob August; b. 1764, Gotha; d. 1830, Jena. Pupil of Franz Anton Ernst at Gotha; settled in Weimar; maker to the Court; worked also in Halle, Leipzig, Magdeburg, Berlin, and Jena; fine repairer, but made excellent violins and violoncellos. His five sons all became violin makers.

OTTO, Ludwig, son of Georg August Gottfried Otto; b. 1821, Jena; 1887, St. Petersburg, Cologne, St. Petersburg. He exhibited three violins, a viola, violoncello, and double-bass, in London, 1862. They were all well made, and were moderately priced.

OTTO, Louis, son of Carl August Otto; b. July 15, 1844, Ludwigslust. Pupil of his father in Ludwigslust, 1860-65; in Cologne, 1865-66, then went to Hanover, 1872; then still there (1898); careful in selection of wood; large Stradivari pattern; excellent work; has made 238 violins, and many tenors and 'cellos. First-prizeman, Chicago and Melbourne.

OUVRARD, Jean. 1725-46; pupil of Claude Pierray. Transition maker, but true violoncello pattern, though continued to make viols.

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PACHERELE, Michel. A maker in Paris in 1779; followed Guersan; slightly arched; yellow varnish.

PACHERELE, Pierre. 1803, Mirecourt; 1871, Nice; fellow-apprentice of J. B. Vuillaume at Mirecourt; worked at Genoa, and with Pressenda, Turin; made a great many violins, altos, and violoncellos all of good workmanship; varnish too thick; took Stradivari for his model; a clever repairer.

PACQUET. From Aix; working in Marseilles in 1785.

PADEWET, Johann. A good maker; d. about 1874; started at Basle, 1844, but moved to Carlsruhe.

PADEWET, Johann, son of Johann Fade wet; b. Aug. 23, 1851-95, Carlsruhe. Hanover, Berlin, under Aug. Riechers till 1874. Assisted by two workmen, he makes forty to fifty instruments (violins, violas, and violoncellos) a year, on the Stradivari pattern, using oil varnish of reddish-yellow or golden-brown colour; good repairer.

PAGANI, Gian Battista. Cremona, 1747.

PAGANONI, Antonio. Working in Venice in eighteenth century.

PAGEOT (Pajeot), son of Louis Simon Pageot; b. Jan. 25, 1791, Mirecourt; d. there Aug. 24, 1849. A maker of bows. In his workshops about 8000 dozens of bows were turned out at prices varying from 6d. to 14s.

PALATE. Liège, 1710; Italian pattern; excellent instruments.

PALMA, Paolo. Lucca, 1760.

PAMPHILON, Edward. A maker in London, on London Bridge, about 1680-90.

PANDOLFI, Antonio. Venice, 1700-20; good; yellow-brown varnish.

PANORMO, Edward, either a son or a grandson of Vincenzo Panormo; he worked both in London and in Ireland.

PANORMO, George. London. Probably a grandson of Vincenzo Panormo.

PANORMO, George Lewis, second son of Vincenzo Panormo. Very good bows; fine guitars and a few good fiddles.

PANORMO, Joseph, eldest son of Vincenzo Panormo. London. Died in great poverty; good workman; violoncellos excellent.

PANORMO, Vincenzo (known as “old Panormo”), b. Nov. 30, 1734, Monreale, a village near Palermo, Sicily; d. 1813, London. Began at sixteen; worked in England, Ireland, and Paris; perhaps with Bergonzi in Cremona; excellent maker; powerful tone; Stradivari pattern; clear yellow varnish; also guitars.

PANZANI (Pansani), Antonio. Rome, 1735-85; good maker.

PAQUOTTE. Frères. Henri Félix, 1857, and Placide, 1864, sons of Jean Baptiste Paquotte, to whose business they succeeded in July 1888. Paris; a few violins; excellent in tone, but firm chiefly repaired.

PAQUOTTE, Jean Baptiste. Nephew of Sébastien Paquotte; one of the best Paris makers of the, day, 1860-88.

PAQUOTTE, Sébastien. Mirecourt, 1800-63, Paris. In 1830 he founded the business in Paris.

PARALDIC. 1722.

PARDI. Paris, 1788.

PARDINI, Bastiano. 1700.

PARIS, Claude. Paris, 1775. In 1816 was joined by his nephew; spirit varnish, a red-yellow colour.

PARKER, Daniel. London, 1740-85. A very clever workman, possibly a pupil of Urquhart or Pamphilon. Red varnish, wood excellent, tone clear and powerful. He made largely for the trade; his instruments are often sold under other names; no viola or violoncello of his known. About 1793 instruments valued at five guineas each; about 1805 they realised as much as fifteen.

PARTH (or Perth), Andreas Nicolas. Vienna about 1790.

PASTA, Domenico and Gaetano. Brescia about 1700-30; followed the Amati instead of the Maggini pattern; poor tone; varnish brown.

PATZELT, Johann Ferdinand. Vienna.

PAZZINI, Gian Gaetano. Florence, 1630-70. According to label a pupil of Maggini; instruments are not common.

PEARCE, George; b. Nov. 16, 1820, Warminster; d. 1856, London. In the workshop of S. A. Forster as errand-boy taught violin-making, and became an excellent workman.

PEARCE, James and Thomas. Brothers working in London, 1780-1800; work poor.

PEARCE, William. London.

PECCATE, Charles. Maker of bows in Paris, 1889.

PECCATE, Dominique. 1810, Mirecourt; d. there, Jan. 13, 1874. In 1826 was apprenticed to J. B. Vuillaume at Paris, and worked with him until 1837; then François Lupot died, and Dominique succeeded to his business at 18 Rue d'Angivilliers; returned to Mirecourt; ranks next to François Tourte as a bow-maker; at first sold for 16s., now price quadrupled.

PECCATE, jeune. A brother of Dominique; also made bows; worked for J. B. Vuillaume; work is inferior to that of his brother, 1856.

PEDRAZZI, Fra Pietro. A Dominican friar; working in Bologna in 1784.

PEMBERTON, Edward. London in 1660; instruments ugly, but tone good and the varnish fine. It has been suggested that a Pemberton was the maker of the instrument presented to the Earl of Leicester by Queen Elizabeth, which has “J.15/78 P.” engraved on the tail-pin — supposed to be the initials of the maker, and the date of the year (1578) in which it was made. If so, he was the earliest English maker of the four-stringed violin.

PERAULT. A maker in Paris, 1775-77.

PÉRON (or Perou), Nicolas. Paris, 1775-90; appointed maker to the Duchess of Orléans; instruments well made; yellow-brown varnish; Gagliano pattern.

PERRY, Thomas. A maker in Dublin, 1767-1827. He was in partnership with William Wilkinson; they made good violins.

PERSOIT. Maker of excellent bows in Paris. He made for J. B. Vuillaume, 1823-41; but then started a business of his own. He marked his bows “P. R. S.”

PETERS, Michael. Weyberg in 1801, judging from two labels in a bass-viol of seven strings; the first runs: “Dieses Instrument ist gemacht, anno 1627,” the second is “Arranschirt von Michael Peters in Weyberg, anno 1801.”

PETZ. Fussen, Bavaria, 1770.

PEZZARDI. Brescia, 1580-1610; violins similar to those of Maggini; sometimes sold as Maggini.

PFAB. Hamburg.

PFRETZSCHNER, Carl Friedrich, son of Johann Gottlob Pfretzschner. Worked in Cremona; no great merit.

PFRETZSCHNER, Johann Gottlob. Cremona, 1794; not good.

PFRETZSCHNER. Neukirchen.

PICHOL. Paris.

PIClNO. Padua, 1712; instruments arched; dark varnish.

PIERRAY, Louis, 1890. A maker of excellent violins, with red-brown varnish, and of good tone, Brussels; pupil of Mougenot, but started his own business in 1883; wrote. “Traité de luthierie.”

PIERRAY (or Pierret), Claude. A contemporary of Boquay; he worked in Paris about 1700-30.

PIETE (PICTE), Noel. Paris, 1760-1810; beautifully finished workmanship.

PILLEMENT, F. Paris, 1790-1820; capricious maker; dark varnish.

PILOSlO, Francesco. Gorizia in 1748.

PIQUE, Francois Louis; b. 1758 at Rorei, near Mirecourt; d. 1822, Charenton St. Maurice. Went to Paris in 1777.

PIROT, Claude. Paris, 1800-20; good violins, Italian pattern; bellies slightly arched, backs hardly at all; the sound-holes well cut; varnish thick, red-brown or pale yellow colour.

PITET (or Pilet). A maker in Paris latter part of the seventeenth century; no great value.

PIZZURMUS (Pozzurnus), David. Genoa, 1760.

PLACK (Plach), Francis. Schœnbock, Bohemia, 1740-80; good violins.

PLANE, W. Glasgow, 1860.

PLANI, Agostino de. Genoa in 1778; commonplace.

PLATNER, Michele. A Swiss; working in Rome in 1747; fair workmanship rather arched; scroll well cut; varnish golden-red.

PLUMEREL. Was working in Paris in 1740.

PLUMEREL, Charles. Angers, France, in 1822.

POIROS, Louis. French maker.

POIRSON, Eloph. Paris, 1875-89: first an amateur, afterwards made for the trade; good work.

POLIS, Luca de. Cremona in 1751.

POLLUSCA (Pollusha), Antonio. Rome in 1751.

PONS, César. Grenoble, 1780-1820; violins large size, arched; work not good.

POLRON, Peeter. A double-bass used in the Cathedral of Antwerp is dated 1647.

POSTACCHINI, Andrea. Firmo, 1824; excellent maker, and good repairer of instruments.

POSTIGLIONE, Vincenzo. 1835 at Naples; good maker, and made many instruments, which rise every year in value.

POWELL, Royal and Thomas. Two brothers who worked in London, 1770-1800; employed by William Forster, and his son, William Forster; work neat and good.

PRESSENDA, Giovanni Francesco; b. 1777, Turin; d. there, 1854. Was the son of a strolling fiddler, Raffaele Pressenda; went to Cremona; there studied violin-making under Lorenzo Storioni; learnt there to make the varnish for which his violins were afterwards noted; Stradivari pattern, not much arched, sound-holes well cut, proportions correct. wood good, but scrolls rather roughly finished; red-brown varnish of excellent quality.

PRESTON, John. York, 1785-95.

PREVÔT (or Prevost), P. Charles. Paris from 1775-89.

PRIEUR, Claude Edme Jean. Paris, 1775-89.

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QUINOT, Jacques. Paris, 1660. Mentioned in 1680 as being “one of the most clever of the honourable luthiers of Paris.”

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RACCERIS. Mantua, 1670; similar to the Gagliano family, with one of whom he is said to have been in partnership.

RAFFAELLE, Nella (or Della). Brescia, 18th century; pattern of Maggini; his instruments have the sides ornamented with inscriptions; brown varnish; no great merit.

RAMBAUX, Claude Victor, 1806-71; at Darney in the Vosges; d. at Mirecourt. Went to Caen and worked under Thibout, 1824-27; then to Paris, where he worked with Gand; great repairer and adapter of old instruments by cutting down.

RAMFPLER, Franz, 1834-90, Munich; pupil of Andreas Engleder, Munich; used his own invented varnish; made good fiddles.

RANCE, Thomas. Brussels, about 1680-85.

RANTA, Pietro. Brescia, 1733; Amati pattern.

RASURA, Vincenzo. Lugo, 1785.

RAU, J. F. Nuremberg; exhibited at Munich in 1854 a violin of good though rather coarse tone.

RAUCH, Breslau, and Rauch of Würzburg, two brothers, 1730-60; good violins; used their own models; varnish red; tone sound.

RAUCH, Jacob. Mannheim, 1720-50; good work; violins Stainer tone; excellent altos, violoncellos, and double-basses.

RAUCH, Sebastian, 1725-90. Hamburg, and Leitmeritz in Bohemia; violins arched, not remarkable.

RAUT, .Jean. Bretagne; who worked in Rennes till about 1790; pattern of Guarneri; red varnish.

RAUTMANN. Brunswick.

RAWLINS. Loudon in 1779.

RAYMAN, Jacob; b. in the Tyrol, but settled in London about 1620-48.

RAZENZO, Carole. Barcelona, 1690.

REALLI, Cosmo Battista. Parma, 1667.

RECHIARDINI, Giovanni (called “Zuano”). Venice, 18th century.

REGNAUT (Renault), Jacques. Paris, 1665-85; a little pocket-violin, with silver purfling, was dated 1682; maker to the King.

REICHEL, Johann Conrad, brother of Johann Gottfried. Neukirchen in 1779.

REICHEL, Johann Gottfried, brother of Johann Conrad. Absam; pupil of Stainer; work rough; red-brown varnish of poor quality.

REMY A French maker; 1840, Paris and London; Italian pattern; wood artificially aged.

REMY, Hippolyte, eldest son of Jean Mathurin Remy. 1835-70 in Paris; no great merit.

REMY, Jean Mathurin, son of Mathurin François Remy; b. 1770, Paris; d. 1854; his work same as father's; oil varnish.

REMY, Jules Hippolyte, second son of Jean Mathurin Remy; b. 1813, Paris; d. 1876.

REMY, Mathurin François. 1775-91, Paris; yellow-brown varnish.

RENAUDIN, Léopold; b. 1749, at Mirecourt; guillotined, May 7, 1795. He settled in Paris, living in the Rue St. Honoré from 1776 till his death, at the sign of “Aux amateurs”; fairly good violin, but too much arched; varnish almost black in colour; excellent double-basses.

RENAULT, Nicolas. A French maker, 16th century.

RENAULT, Sébastien. Paris, 1775-1805. Cithers of his are known dated 1779, 1786, and 1804; a violin is described as made on a good pattern, with yellow varnish of fair quality; worked with F. Chatelain, Advt.: “Renault et Chatelain, luthiers, font et vendent louent, achètent et raccommodent toutes sortes d'instruments de musique, etc., à Paris.”

RENISTO. Cremona, 1735-40; pupil of Carlo Bergonzi, whose work he copied closely.

RESLE, Andrea. Fiesso in 1740; good.

REYNAUD, André. Tarascon, 1754-66; good violoncellos.

RICHARDS. London.

RICHELME, A. Marius. Marseilles; curves of the upper and lower bouts almost returning to the ancient viol-shape. He published in Marseilles, 1868: “Etudes et observations sur la lutherie ancienne et moderne.”

RICOLAZZI, Lodovico, 1729.

RIECHERS, 1836, Hanover; d. 1893, Berlin. Was first a pupil of L Bausch at Leipzig, then moved to Berlin in 1872, at the special request of the violinist, Joseph Joachim; made excellent instruments on the Stradivari and Guarneri patterns; about 1000 violins and over 200 violoncellos were made in his workshop.

RIESS. A maker, Bamberg, about 1740-60; fair maker; Stainer pattern.

RINALDI, Benedetto Gioffredo. Pupil of Pressenda; d. 1890, Turin.

RIVOLTA, Giacomo. Milan, 1822. Good work.

ROCCA, Giuseppe Antonio. Turin, 1835-55; worked at one time for Pressenda; Stradivari pattern; varnish is poor quality.

RÖSCHER, C. H. W. Bremen, 1871.

ROGER, G. Montpellier, 1820.

ROGERI, Gian Battista; b. Bologna, 1650. Cremona, under Nicolo Amati; Stradivari was a fellow-pupil of his.

ROISMANN, Johann. Breslau, 1680.

ROL. Paris. 1753.

ROMANO, Pietro. Pavia, 18th century.

ROMARINI, Antonio. Cremona, 18th century.

ROMBOUTS, Pieter. Amsterdam, 1705-35; he made violins, violas, and violoncellos, much arched; bright but thick varnish.

ROOK, Joseph. London, about 1777-1830; good work; Forster pattern.

ROPIQUET. Paris, 1810-30; he was an orchestral player; made some violins of no great value.

ROSIERO, Rocco. Cremona, early part of 18th century.

ROSIO, Paolo. 1857, Verolanuova; Brescia.

ROTA, Giovanni. Cremona. 1800-10; rough work; varnish yellow.

ROTA. Giuseppe Antonio. Turin, 1825; his work similar to that of Pressenda; varnish is red-brown.

ROTH, Johann and Christian. Both about 1675, the former at Darmstadt and the latter at Augsburg.

ROTTENBROUCK. Brussels, 1700-25; pattern of Amati; red-brown varnish.

ROVETTA, Antonio. Bergamo, 1840-70.

ROZE. Orléans, 1755-65; good workmanship; varnish yellow.

RUGGERI (Rugieri), Francesco. 1668-1720. Was the first of a family of makers in Cremona, very often confused with Rogeri of Brescia.

RUGGERI (Rugieri), Giacinto, son of Francesco Ruggeri; b. in Cremona.

RUGGERI (Rugieri), Guido. Cremona about 1720.

RUGGERI (Rugieri), Pietro Giacomo and Giovanni Battista. Both working in Brescia about 1700-25.

RUGGERI (Rugieri), Vincenzo, son of Francesco Ruggeri. Cremona about 1700-30, is also said to have worked in Brescia. He made many altos and violoncellos; work rough; last member of this family to make violins. He also used “il Per” on his labels, for the same reason probably, viz., to distinguish his work from that of the Rogeri of Brescia.

RUGGERI, Gianbattista. Cremona, cir. 1693.

RUPPERT, Johann Heinrich. Erfurt about 1720. His violins, altos, and violoncellos were of a flat model, without linings, corner blocks, or purfling; loud tone, and dark brown varnish.

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SACCHINI, Sabattino. Pesaro in 1686.

SACQUIN. Paris about 1830-60; instruments well made, especially the double basses; followed the Stradivari pattern.

SAINT-PAUL, Antoine. Paris about 1765-90. He was son-in-law and successor of Louis Guersan; his advertisement says, “Il fait et vend toutes sortes d'instruments de musique, sçavoir; violons de Cremone, violons de sa façon et de toutes sortes d'auteurs; alto-violas, basses et contre-basses.”

SAINT-PAUL, Pierre. Paris, 1740.

SAJOT. Paris, 1730-35; instruments with flat backs; varnish yellow-brown; the work poor.

SALINO, J. B. Rome in 1760; very arched; varnish bad, brown.

SALLE, le Père. Paris about 1825-53. He made a few violins; beautiful copies of Guarneri; fine repairer and great connoisseur.

SALOMON, Jean Baptiste Deshayes. Rheims, 1747-70 (?); went to Paris, where his widow carried on the firm, employing Namy; later he settled in the Rue de l'Arbre-sec (about 1769). He died before 1772, for in that year Namy is mentioned as working for the widowed Madame Salomon. He made few violins, but they show good work, and are on a similar pattern to those of Louis Guersan, his contemporary; they have yellow-brown varnish; unequal maker; some good violoncellos and bass viols.

SALZARD, F. Paris.

SANONI, Giovanni Battista. Verona, 1740; instruments much arched; rose-coloured varnish; good work.

SANTAGIULIANA, Giacinto. Venice, 1830.

SANTE. Pesaro, 1670.

SANTE, Giuseppe. Rome, 1778.

SANTO, Giovanni. Naples, 1700- 30; copied Amati; small pattern; well made; varnish poor.

SANTO SERAFINO; b. at Udine; worked in Venice about 1710-48.

SANZO SANTINO (Santo Sentino). Milan, 18th century; good; resembles Grancino.

SARACENI, Domenico. Florence, 17th century.

SARAILLAC, François. Lyons, 1678-1712.

SASSANO. Fine Italian maker; rarely met with; yellow varnish; beautiful free tone.

SAUNIER, Edmond. 1754 -80, Bordeaux and Paris. Was a pupil of Lambert of Nancy, the “Carpenter,” but did superior work.

SAVANI, Giuseppe. Carpi, 1809.

SAWITZKI (Sawicki), Nicolaus; b. 1792, Poland; d. 1850; settled in Vienna; good.

SCARAMPELLA, Giuseppe, son of Paolo Scarampella; 1838-80 (?), Brescia, Paris, Florence. He restored the viola and the famous violoncello of Stradivari kept in the Istituto Musicale of Florence, and in 1884 succeeded Castellani as keeper of the collection of instruments there; makes new instruments, following the Stradivari or Guarneri del Gesù patterns; tone clear and strong; the work carefully done; reddish oil varnish.

SCARAMPELLA, Paolo; b. Sept. 25, 1803, Brescia; d. April 7, 1870. A carpenter by trade, but made many violins, violoncellos, guitars, and mandolines.

SCARAMPELLA, Stefano, son of Paolo Scarampella. Brescia, 1843; settled in Mantua; made many good violins.

SCHAENDL, Anton. Mittenwald, 1753.

SCHEINLEIN, Johann Michael, son and pupil of Matthäus Friedrich Scheinlein; 1751, Langenfeld; large Stainer pattern, but avoided the arching; full and pleasant tone; but wood not being thick enough, so not durable.

SCHEINLEIN, Matthäus Friedrich, 1710, Langenfeld in Franken (Franconia); d. there, 1771. A violinist, but taking great interest in violin-making, began by repairing old instruments and finished by making new ones; much arched; dark brown varnish; work careful.

SCHELMAYER, Christian. Cologne.

SCHLICK, Leipzig.

SCHMIDT. Cassel, 1817; Stradivari pattern, but edges are larger and purfling not so close to the sides; spirit varnish; wood of bad quality.

SCHMIED. Vienna, 18th century. Johann Adam.

SCHÖNFELDER, Johann Adam. Neukirchen in 1743

SCHONGER, Franz. Erfurt, 18th century; fairly good.

SCHONGER, Georg, son of Franz Schonger. Erfurt; better than his father, and left some good violins; Italian pattern; good repairer.

SCHORN, Johann Paul; 1680-1716, Innsbrück; made excellent violins; much arched; good varnish.

SCHÜNEMANN, Otto. German; apointed Director of the School of Violin-Making at Schwerin.

SCHULZ, Peter. Ratisbon, 1854; German school; good.

SCHUSTER, Gebrüder. Brothers who make cheap fiddles, 75s., good tone, at Markneukirchen.

SCHUSTER, Michael. Also connected with the business in Markneukirchen, Saxony.

SCHWARTZ, Bernard. French maker who settled at Strasburg, 1795-1822; two sons, both makers.

SCHWARTZ, Georges Frédéric; 1785-1849; and Théophile Guillaume, 1787; Strasburg, 1861, sons of Bernard Schwartz. Pupils of their father, and at his death succeeded to his business, which became “Frères Schwartz.” Théophile was chiefly concerned in the instrument-making, Georges gave his time to making bows; he gained a well-merited reputation. His bows are generally marked near the nut with “Schwartz, Strasbourg.”

SCHWARTZ, Théophile Guillaume, son of Théophile Guillaume Schwartz; b. Sept. 3, 1821. In 1852 he succeeded to the business in Strasburg at 2 Place Saint-Thomas; chiefly repairer.

SCHWEIZER, Johann Baptist. Budapest, 1798-1875; pupil of Geisenhof in Vienna; his violins not arched; work neat.

SEGHER, Girolamo; b. 1646. Was a pupil of Nicola Amati, and was working under him, 1680-82.

SENI, Francesco. Florence in 1634.

SERASATI, Domenico. Naples, 1710-50; fair.

SICILIANO (Ciciliano), Antonio. Venice about 1600. A tenor and a bass viola da gamba in the Modena Museum, Vienna.

SICILIANO, Gioacchino, son of Antonio Siciliano. Venice about 1680.

SILVESTRE, Hippolyte; 1808, Saint-Nicolas-du-Port (Meurthe); 1879, Sommerviller, near Nancy. Was first a pupil of Blaise at Mirecourt, then of J. B. Vuillaume at Paris.

SILVESTRE, Pierre, brother of Hippolyte; b. Aug. 9, 1801, at Sommerviller, near Nancy; d. 1859, Lyons. Was also a pupil of Blaise at Mirecourt, then went to Paris; worked with Lupot; excellent violins; made about 350 instruments, bearing his label: “Pierre Silvestre à Lyon, 185-.” When Working with his brother, the label used was: “Petrus et Hippolytus Silvestre fratres fecerunt Lugdun.”

SIMON. Salzburg, 1722.

SIMON, Claude. Paris, 1783-88.

SIMON, P.; b. 1808, Mirecourt. Went to Paris in 1838, where he worked for some months under D. Peccate; then to J. B. Vuillaume; made most excellent bows, and generally marked them with “Simon, Paris,” near the nut.

SIMONIN, Charles. Mirecourt. Was apprenticed to J. B. Vuillaume at Paris, and became one of his most able Workmen. In 1841 he settled in Geneva, then went to Toulouse; excellent maker.

SIMOUTRE, Nicolas. 1788, Mirecourt; d. 1870, at Metz. His son, Nicolas Eugène, was also a maker.

SIMOUTRE, Nicolas Eugène, son of Nicolas Simoutre. 1834-89, Mirecourt. Was first a pupil of his father, then of Darche in 1852 at Paris; then of Ch. Roth in 1856 at Strasburg; worked in Strasburg, Mulhausen, Basle, and Paris; a prolific writer on his art.

SIMPSON, James, and Son. Were musical instrument makers in London in 1794.

SIRJEAN. Maker of bows in Paris, 1818.

SITT, A. Prague, 1854. Stradivari pattern, which improve with age.

SLAGHMEULEN, Jan Baptist van der. Antwerp, 1672. The varnish a pale brown.

SMITH, Thomas. London, 1740-90. Pupil and successor of Peter Wamsley; fine violoncellos; Stainer pattern; rising in price. John Norris was a pupil of his. Label: “Made by Thos. Smith at the harp and hautboy in Pickadilly. London, 1756;” similar labels were used until 1766.

SMITH, William. Hedon, Yorkshire, in 1786.

SNEIDER, Giuseppe. Pavia, 1700-25. A pupil of Nicola Amati. Violins slightly arched; varnish is a rich yellow colour; instruments made by Girolamo, son of Nicola Amati, have often been attributed to Sneider.

SNOECK (Schnoeck), Egidins. Brussels, 1731. Amati pattern; dark reddish varnish.

SNOECK, Marc. Brussels, 1744. Clever repairer.

SOCCHI, Vincenzo. Bologna, 1661.

SOCQUET, Louis. Paris, 1750-80. Not good.

SOLIANI, Angelo. Modena, 1752-1810.

SOMER, Nicolas. Paris, 1725-50.

SPEILER. A German maker, 18th century.

SPRENGER, Anton. 1834, Mittenwald. Makes violins and violoncellos on the Stradivari and Guarneri patterns; oil varnish of good quality.

STADELMANN (Statelmann),

Daniel Achatius. 1630-1744, Vienna, who showed great ability in imitating the Stainer pattern; he used thin varnish of a deep amber colour; the work is well finished.

STADELMANN (Statelmann), Johann Joseph, son of Daniel A. Stadelmann; good copyist of Stainer, 1764.

STADL, Michael Ignatius. Vienna in 1770. Fair.

STAINER, Andreas. Was working in Absam about 1660; made few violins.

STAINER, Jacob, son of Martin Stainer and Sabina Grafinger.

STAINER, Marcus, brother and pupil of Jacob Stainer; he worked in Laufen, Austria.

STANZA, Giuseppe, b. 1663 in Venice. Pupil of Nicola Amati at Cremona.

STATLEE, Anderl. Genoa, 1714. Pupil of Girolamo, son of Nicola Amati.

STEININGER, François Paris, 1827. Excellent maker.

STEININGER, Jacob. Frankfort, 1775. Nicholas Diehl was a pupil of his.

STIRBAT (Stirrat), David. Edinburgh, 1810-15; good.

STORIONI, Lorenzo. 1751-80, Cremona. Worked at 3 Contrada Coltellai; he was one of the latest, if not the last of the celebrated makers of Cremona, and his instruments, though of great merit, show signs of decadence in the art.

STOSS, Bernard and Martin. Fussen, Bavaria; worked in Vienna; fair makers.

STOSS, Franz. Fussen, Bavaria, 1750-98.

STRADIVARI (Stradiuarius), Antonio, son of Alessandro Stradivari and Anna Moroni.

STRADIVARI, Francesco, son of Antonio Stradivari. 1671-1743.

STRADIVARI, Omobono, son of Antonio. 1679-1742.

STRAUBE (Staube). Berlin about 1770-75. Few known, but good; excellent repairer.

STRAUS, Joseph. Neustadt, 1745-50.

STRNAD, Caspar. 1750. He settled in Prague and worked there, 1781-95; good maker.

STROBL, Johann. Hallein in 18th century.

STURGE, H. 1811-53, Bristol; repairer, Huddersfield.

SULOT, Nicolas. Dijon, 1825-40. Eccentric maker.

SURSANO (Sorsano), Spiritus. Cuneo, 1714-35; inferior.

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TACHINARDI. Cremona, 1690.

TADOLINI. Modena, 19th century.

TANEGIA, Carlo Antonio. Milan, 1725-30.

TANIGARDI (Taningard), Georgio. Rome, 1735.

TARR, William. Manchester, 1829-55; made some fair double-basses.

TASSINI, Bartolommeo. Venice, 1754; followed Testore.

TAYLOR, 1750, London; supposed pupil of Panormo; good instruments, principally double-basses, and clever at repairing old ones.

TECHLER (Tecchler), David; 1666-1743.

TEDESCO (Todesco), Leopoldo, 1625 - 58; pupil of Nicola Amati in Cremona, 1653-54.

TEODITI (Teoditti), Giovanni. Rome, 17th century.

TERNYANINI, Pietro. Modena, 1755.

TESTATOR, “Il Vecchio.” Milan, 1520; reputed transition maker from viol to violin.

TESTORE, Carlo Antonio, eldest son of Carlo Giuseppe Testore. Milan, 1735-65; followed the Guarneri model; violoncellos and tenors very good; varnish golden-yellow.

TESTORE, Carlo Giuseppe; b. at Novarra; settled at Milan about 1687, and worked there till about 1720; pupil of Giovanni Grancino, for whose work his instruments are often mistaken; best workman in this family, but made few instruments. When the well-known Lindley “Grancino” violoncello was repaired in 1884, the removal of the Cremona label exposed the original label in good preservation, as follows: “Carlo Giuseppe Testore allievo di Gio. Grancino in Contrada Larga di Milano, 1690.” A double-bass of his was played on by the celebrated Bottesini at concerts; it had a splendid tone. Label: “Carlo Giuseppe Testore in Contrada larga di Milano al segno dell aquila, 1700.” He had two sons, Carlo Antonio and Paolo Antonio, both violin-makers.

TESTORE, Giovanni, son of Carol Testore, q. v.

TESTORE, Paolo Antonio, second son of Carlo Giuseppe Testore and the last maker of this name.

THÉRIOT, J. B. Paris, 1783.

THIBOUT, Aimé Justin. 1808-62, Caen.

THIBOUT, Albert, son of Gabriel Adolphe Thibout. 1839-65, Paris; succeeded his uncle, Gabriel Eugène, as “luthier de l'Opéra, and was succeeded in his turn by the brothers Gand.

THIBOUT, Gabriel Adolphe, son of Jacques Pierre Thibout, 1804; Paris, 1858; not as good as his father.

THIBOUT, Gabriel Eugène, son of Jacques Pierre Thibout. 1825 at Paris; succeeded his brother, Gabriel Adolphe, as “luthier de l'Opéra” in Paris; 1861, Boulogne-sur-Mer.

THIBOUT, Jacques Pierre. 1777-1856, Caen. First worked at Caen, then under Koliker at Paris; line maker; excellent tone; workmanship rivals best Cremona style; varnish red on amber ground. Advt.: “Nouveau procédé approuvé par l'Institut. Thibout, lathier du roi, rue Rameau, no. 8, à Paris, 1825.”

THIBOUVILLE- LAMY, Jérôme. A little before 1867 he became sole proprietor of the various factories at Mirecourt; he gradually substituted mechanical for manual labour, and while increasing the number of instruments made, at the same time reduced their price, so that at last he was able to exhibit at Vienna in 1873 his famous violins at 4s., 8s., and 16s. each. By 1887, 35,000 instruments had been made by this firm. He was awarded a medal, Vienna, 1873; medal of honour, Santiago, 1875; prize medal, Philadelphia, 1876; and gold medal, London, 1885. He Was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, April 10, 1877, and Officer, Jan. 15, 1892.

THIN, Mathias and Georg. Vienna, 18th century; good.

THIR, Johann Georg. Vienna, 1791.

THOMASSIN. Worked under Clément at Paris, 1825-45; good.

THOMPSON (Thomson), Robert. London, at the sign of the “Bass-Violin,” in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1749-64; Stainer pattern. He was succeeded by his sons, Charles and Samuel, who worked about 1775-85.

THOROWGOOD, Henry. London 18th century. Label: “Made and sold by Henry Thorowgood at the Violin and Guitar under the North Piazza of the Royal Exchange, 17-, London.”

THUMHARDT, Munich and Straubing in the 18th century; German style.

TIELKE, Joachim. One of a family of makers. Hamburg, 1539-1701. He was celebrated for the lutes, theorbos, guitars, and especially the viols of all kinds which he made, of very fine tone, ornamented with the richest and most varied inlaid work; one violin of his is also mentioned.

TILLEY, Thomas. London, 1774.

TIPHANON (Thiphanon), Jean Francois. Paris, 1775-1800.

TIRLER, Carle. Bologna, 18th century.

TOBIN, Richard. London, 1790-1840; pupil of Perry, Dublin; worked for John Betts; followed the Stradivari or Guarneri patterns; good maker. A son of his was also a maker.

TODINI, Michele, 1625. Lived in Rome; made a few violins.

TOLBECQUE, Auguste, son of Auguste Joseph Tolbecque; 1830-51, Paris. He was a violoncellist; also worked at violin - making under Rambaux in Paris; made a small number of new instruments; extremely clever at restoring old ones.

TONONI, Antonio. Bologna, 17th century.

TONONI, Carlo, son of Felice. First worked, 1698-1739, Bologna; settled in Venice. His instruments vary; they are generally of a large pattern, not so highly arched as those of his brother Giovanni; varnish similar to that of Santo Serafino; yellow-brown colour. He often branded his monogram near the button of the tailpiece.

TONONI, Felice. Bologna, 1670-90. He worked with his son Giovanni; their violoncellos have a great reputation in Italy.

TONONI, Giovanni, son of Felice. Worked in Bologna till about 1705; few instruments of his are to be found.

TOPPANI, Angelo de. Rome, 1720-40. His instruments are rarely seen, are similar to those of Techler, but more arched; varnish golden-yellow; sound-holes are cut large.

TORELLI. Verona, 1625.

TORINO (Torring). Maker and repairer of violins; London, 1800.

TORTOBELLO, Francesco. Rome, 1680; Maggini pattern.

TOULY, Jean. Nancy, 1730-47. Label: “Fait par moy Jean Touly Nancy, 1747.”

TOURTE, François (“le jeune”); b. 1747, Paris; d. there, April 1835. Was a younger brother of Xaver Tourte.

TOURTE, le Père. Settled in Paris about 1740.

TOURTE, Xaver (l'aîné), eldest son of Tourte père.

TRAPANI, Raffaele. Naples, 1810; workmanship is good; violins large patterns, with prominent edges and heavy purfling; the scroll Brescian type; varnish thick and of a red-brown colour.

TRÉVILLOT, Claude. Mirecourt, 1698. .

TRINELLI, Giovanni. Italian.

TRUNCO. Cremona, 1660.

TRUSKA, Simon Joseph, 1734-1809, Raudnitz, Bohemia. Entered Strahow Monastery, Dec. 8, 1758, taking the vows, Jan. 1, 1761. Became proficient as a musician and composer, and then began to construct instruments, making violins, altos, violas d'amore, and bass-viols.

TUBBS, James. A maker of excellent bows, Wardour Street, London.

TURNER, William. London in 1650; splendid wood. Label: “William Turner, at ye hand and crown in gravelle lane neere Aldgate, London, 1650.”

TYWERSUS. Instruments are similar to those of Andrea Amati. Nicolas Renault was a pupil of his.

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UGAR, Crescenzio. Rome in 1790; work is German in character; brown varnish.

UNGARINI, Antonio. Fabriano, 1762.

URQUHART, Thomas. A maker in London about 1650-80; he was probably a Scotchman. His work resembles that of Jacob Rayman, with whom he may have worked, and shows great merit. His violins are of two sizes, some on a small, others on a large pattern, very arched, the corners not very prominent, the purfling narrow and placed close to the edge; the oil varnish, of a yellowish-brown or sometimes red colour, is of excellent quality, and is similar to Italian varnish; the tone is clear and silvery. His violins and violas are rare, and no violoncello of his has been seen. Urquhart is sure to rise in value, and some of his work is splendid in finish.

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VAILLANT (Vaillot or Vaillaut), François. Paris, 1736-83; good workmanship; varnish poor.

VALENTINE, William. London, died about 1877; made good double-basses.

VALLER. Marseilles, 1683.

VANDELLI, Giovanni. Modena, 1796-1839; fair work.

VANDERLIST, Paris, 1788-89. Guadagnini pattern and varnish. He branded his name on his instruments. Label: “Luthier, rue des Vieux-Augustins, près de l'égout de la rue Montmartre, Paris.”

VAROTTI, Giovanni. Bologna, 1813.

VARQUAIN. Paris, 1742.

VAUCHEL, Joseph. Damm about 1840. He exhibited two violins at Munich in 1854, which had a fine tone, and was awarded the medal of honour. Hörlein was a pupil of his.

VENZI, Andrea. Florence, 1636.

VERBRUGGEN, Theodor. Is known as one of the makers in Antwerp in 1641 by a double-bass which he made for use in the Cathedral.

VERINI, Andrea. 1884.

VERLE, Francesco. Padua about 1590. Label: “In Padova Francesco Verle.”

VERMESCH, le Père. Beaumontsur-Oise in 1781.

VÉRON, Pierre André. Paris about 1720-50; good work; pattern Italian.

VETRINI, Battista. Brescia about 1629; small pattern; wood is excellent; good yellow varnish.

VETTER, Jeane Christophe. Strasburg in 1744.

VIARD, Nicolas. Versailles, 1790.

VIBERT, J. B. Paris, 1775.

VIBRECHT, Gysbert. Amsterdam, 1700-10.

VILLAUME ET GIRON. In a violin of fairly good workmanship was the printed label: “Villaume et Giron, Troyes, 170-.”

VIMERCATI, Pietro. Do not confound with Gaspar, a lute-maker. A maker in Brescia in the 17th century; is thought to have been a pupil of Carlo Tononi in Venice; instruments arched; Maggini pattern.

VINACCIA, Antonio. The head of a family of makers; worked in Naples, 1766-74; pattern of Gagliano. Two sons, Gennaro and Gaetano, were also makers, but chiefly of mandolines.

VINACCIA, Pasquale, son of Gaetano, 1806-81.

VINCENZI, Luigi. Carpi in 1775.

VIORILLO, Giovanni. Ferrara, 1780; followed Stainer pattern.

VIR, Hieronimo di. Bresa, Silesia.

VITOR, de. A maker in Brescia in 1740; instruments similar in appearance to those of Maggini; large pattern; fine workmanship.

VITUS DE ANGELIS. Bologna, 1609.

VIVOLI, Giovanni. Florence, 1642.

VOEL, E. Mayence, 1840; his instruments follow the Stradivari more than the German pattern; general workmanship good.

VOGEL, Wolfgang; d. Feb. 17, 1650, Nuremberg; instruments much liked.

VOGLER, Johan Georg. Würzburg in 1749. Label: “Johann Georg Vogler, Lauten and Geigenmacher in Würzburg, 17-.” His son was the celebrated Abbé Georg Joseph Vogler.

VOGT. Good instruments, Vienna, in the Speigel-Gasse.

VOIGT, Martin. Hamburg, 1726. His work is similar to that of Tielke. A bass-viol, the back inlaid in ivory, having Apollo, Venus, Mercury, and Diana represented, was dated Hamburg, 1726, and was exhibited at the South Kensington Museum, London, 1872.

VOIRIN, François Nicolas. 1833, at Mirecourt; 1885, Paris. After working at Mirecourt, he went to Paris in 1855, and for fifteen years made bows for J. B. Vuillaume; he obtained as “collaborateur” a “mention honourable” at the 1867 Paris Exhibition; gold and silver medallist, Paris, 1867 and 1878; followed the Tourte pattern, but made the head of his bow less square; his workmanship shows wonderful finish and elegance. He was awarded a silver medal at the Paris Exhibition in 1878, the only prize given to bow-making; and some of his bows exhibited after his death at the Antwerp Exhibition were awarded a gold medal. He branded his bows with “F. N. Voirin, à Paris”; to this was added, on those bows exhibited at Paris, 1878, “Exposition, 1878.”

VUILLAUME, Claude; b. 1772, Mirecourt; d. 1834. He is the first member known of this family of violin-makers.

VUILLAUME, Claude Francois, fourth son of Claude Vuillaume; b, March 1807, Mirecourt. His son, Sébastien, was also a maker.

VUILLAUME, Jean; b. 1700; d. 1740. A maker in Mirecourt; is said to have been a pupil of Stradivari, but his work shows no sign of it.

VUILLAUME, Jean Baptiste, eldest son of Claude Vuillaume. 1798, Mirecourt; 1875, at Paris.

VUILLAUME, Nicolas, second son of Claude Vuillaume. 1800-71, Mirecourt. Worked with Jean Baptiste, his elder brother, for ten years at Paris.

VUILLAUME, Nicolas François, third son of Claude Vuillaume. 1802, Mirecourt; 1876, Brabant. He worked with his brother, Jean Baptiste, Paris; made fair instruments, and was a fine copyist of Stradivari.

VUILLAUME, Sébastien, son of Claude François Vuillaume; b. 1835; d. 1875, Paris. He was the last maker of this family, and continued to make bows on the same pattern as Jean Baptiste Vuillaume, having in his possession the machine for cutting bows which J. B. V. had invented shortly before his death. Bronze and silver medals: Paris, 1867; Havre, 1868.

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WAGNER, Benedict. A maker of lutes and violins in Estwangen in 1769.

WAGNER, Joseph. Constance, 18th century.

WALDANER. Fussen, 1770.

WALTER, Jean. Paris, 1775-1800.

WAMSLEY, Peter. A maker in London about 1715-51. He had at one time a great reputation, especially for his violoncellos. He copied the Stainer pattern very closely, and also made a few imitations of Stradivari instruments; but in his attempts to obtain an Italian quality of tone he thinned the wood too much, making the tone sound hollow. His violoncellos with thicker wood have a fine tone, so have his double-basses; the latter are rare, and generally have red varnish.

WEAVER, Samuel. London; known by his printed label, “All sorts of musical instruments made and sold by Saml. Weaver on London Bridge.”

WEICKERT. Halle, 1800.

WEIGERT, Johann Blasius. Linz, 1721; a viola d'amore known, labelled: “Joann Blasius Weigert Lauten and Geigenmacher in Linz, 1721.”

WEISZ (Weiss), Jacob. Salzburg, 1733-61.

WENGER, Gregor Ferdinand. Salzburg, 1750-60.

WENGER. Padua, 1622.

WETTENENGEL, Gustav Adolph. Neukirchen, Saxony, 1828. He wrote an excellent practical treatise on violin-making.

WEYMANN, Cornelius. Amsterdam, 1682.

WIDHALM (Withalm), Leopold. Nuremberg, about 1750-80; imitated Stainer; wood carefully chosen, sometimes too thin; the varnish red colour, good quality. Several of his violins have double purfling, and are branded with his initials inside.

WIGHTMAN, George. Only known by his label: “George Wightman, Wood Street, London, 1761.”

WILLEMS, Hendrick. Ghent, Belgium, 1650-1700. An alto of large pattern has remarkably fine wood used for the belly; the corners are prominent and squared at the end; Brescian model; the neck ends in a lion's head; the outline and the beautiful finish could almost be mistaken for Italian work, but the varnish is too dry. Nearly all his instruments have beautiful wood for the belly, but walnut, lime-tree, or plane-tree wood is frequently used for the back and the sides, especially in the case of the basses.

WILLEMS, Hendrick. Ghent; some time after the previous Hendrick already mentioned. He made a violoncello or bass with five strings, labelled: “Heyndrick Willems tot Ghendt, 1717.” A violin, dated 1743, had the belly made of carefully selected pine, the back of walnut, and the sides (very exceptional) of maple.

WILLEMS, Jooris. Ghent, 1630-65; a cornet-player, 1634-71. The first mention of him is in August 1634; used lime-wood and finely-figured maple; Italian style.

WILLER. Prague, 18th cent.

WISE, Christopher. Transition maker of viols and violins in London, 1656; small pattern, not much arched; yellow varnish, good quality; careful work. Label: “Christopher Wise, in Half-Moon Alley, without Bishops-Gate, London, 1656.”

WITHERS, Edward. He succeeded to William Davis's business at 31 Coventry Street, London, in December 1846. Both Charles Maucotel and. Boullangier worked under him at one time.

WITHERS, Edward, eldest son of Edward Withers, b. Oct. 22, 1844. Pupil of his father and John Lott. Commenced business at 31 Coventry Street, London, in 1856; makes about twelve instruments per year, on the Stradivari and Guarneri patterns, using good oil varnish, amber colour.

WITTING, Johann, Georg. Mittenwald, about 1775; his instruments are well made; dark varnish.

WORNUM, Robert, 1742-1815. A music-seller in Glasshouse Street, also a violin and violoncello maker.

WORTE, Matthias. Augsburg, 1639.

WRIGHT, Daniel. London, 1745. Label: “Made by Daniel Wright in Holborn, London.”

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ZACH. Vienna; makes good instruments.

ZANFI, Giacomo. Modena, 1756-1822.

ZANOLI, Giacomo. Padua, 1740.

ZANOLI, Giambattista. Verona, 1730; rough work; German style.

ZANOTTI, Antonio. Lodi and Mantua, 1734.

ZANOTTI, Giuseppe. Piacenza, 18th century.

ZANTI, Alessandro. Mantua, 1770; Stradivari pattern; poor varnish.

ZENATTO, Pietro. Treviso, 1634.

ZIMBELMANN, Filippo. Florence, 1661.

ZIVERGER (Zwerger), Anton. Mittenwald, 1750; good wood, dark varnish; fair finish.

 

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